Seven people have been killed and two seriously injured in three attacks in southern France over the past nine days. Here's a look at the victims, based on material from police, family and friends:
March 11, Toulouse
• Imad Ibn-Ziaten, 30, was a paratrooper in the 1st Airborne Transportation Regiment based in Toulouse. He was shot dead the afternoon of March 11 behind a school by a helmeted gunman on a motorcycle, according to police sources.
March 15, Montauban
• Abel Chennouf, 25, served in the 17th Paratrooper Combat Engineering Regiment based in Montauban, not far from Toulouse. Chennouf was at a bank machine with two comrades when a helmeted gunman on a motorcycle shot him dead.
• Mohamed Legouad, 26, was killed along with Chennouf. Military officials said he had served in French operations in Africa.
• Rabbi Jonathan Sandler, 30, taught at the Ozar Hatorah Jewish school in Toulouse. He had been a pupil at the school as a child, then moved to Israel to study, and then moved back to Toulouse to teach.
• Gabriel Sandler, the rabbi's 4-year-old son, was a pupil at the nearby Gan Rachi school of Toulouse.
• Arieh Sandler, the rabbi's 5-year-old son, was also a pupil at the Gan Rachi school.
• Miriam Monsonego was the 7-year-old daughter of the principal of the Jewish school where Monday's shootings occurred.
History of attacks
Here are the worst attacks on France's Jewish community in recent decades:
Monday: Four people were killed, including three children, and one seriously injured in a shooting outside a Jewish school in a residential neighborhood of Toulouse.
Feb. 13, 2006: Ilan Halimi, 23, was found naked and dying with marks of torture on his body. Halimi, a salesman in a Paris telephone store, had been kidnapped on Jan. 21. Police found him in the southern Paris suburb of Sainte-Genevieve-Des-Bois more than three weeks later.
Nov. 15, 2003: A wing of the Merkaz Hatorah School in Gagny, near Paris, was destroyed in an arson attack. No one was killed or injured. Former President Jacques Chirac said "an attack on a Jew is an attack against France."
Aug. 9, 1982: Chez Jo Goldenberg restaurant and deli was bombed at lunchtime, killing six, including two American tourists from the Chicago area, and wounding 22 people. This attack was the deadliest aimed at Jews in France since World War II. No arrests were made nor was there ever a claim of responsibility.
Oct. 3, 1980: The synagogue Union Liberale Israelite de France on rue Copernic in Paris was bombed by a group of unidentified terrorists on the Sabbath, killing four and injuring 46. The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine Special Operations claimed responsibility.
1990-2010: In the past 20 years, several hundred Jewish tombstones have been desecrated in France at cemeteries in Carpentras in 1990, in Herrilsheim in 1992, in Brumath in 2004, in Bar-Le-Duc in 2010. According to CRIF, there is no record of anti-semitic murders in France between the end of World War II and 1980.