1796: English physician Edward Jenner inoculated 8-year-old James Phipps against smallpox by using cowpox matter.
1948: The independent state of Israel was proclaimed in Tel Aviv.
1973: The United States launched Skylab 1, its first manned space station. (Skylab 1 remained in orbit for six years.)
2013: Actress Angelina Jolie revealed she'd undergone a preventive double mastectomy after learning she carried a gene that made it likely she would get breast cancer.