Some Roman Catholics are confused. Some are angry. Others just don't believe the pope meant what he seems to have said.
The uproar is over comments Pope Benedict XVI made in a new book titled Light of the World: The Pope, the Church and the Signs of the Times. In an exchange with the author about AIDS in Africa, Benedict said that for some people, such as male prostitutes, using condoms could be a step in assuming moral responsibility because the intent is to "reduce the risk of infection."
At a news conference Tuesday in Rome, the Rev. Frederico Lombardi, papal spokesman, said that Benedict knew his comments would provoke intense debate and that the pope meant for his remarks to apply not just to male prostitutes, but also "if you're a man, a woman, or a transsexual."
"It's a mess," said John Haas, president of the National Catholic Bioethics Center in Philadelphia, which advises church leaders, hospitals and Vatican offices. "I'm not ready to say that the pope said what Lombardi said."
Many church officials worldwide have been conspicuously silent. Some bishops are even seeking clarification from the Vatican. The U.S. Conference on Catholic Bishops has not issued a statement and referred questions to the Vatican.
On a practical level, most Catholic-affiliated charities that minister to people at high risk of contracting AIDS are unlikely to make changes anytime soon.
Haas, also a moral theologian, said he fielded calls all day Tuesday from confused bishops. Benedict's comments come at a time when U.S. bishops are focused on upholding Catholic orthodoxy on marriage and sexuality.
"It's important to recognize this is not some blanket opening of the door for married people to use artificial birth control," said Mark Silk, director of the Leonard Greenberg Center for the Study of Religion in Public Life at Trinity College in Hartford, Conn.
In some heavily Catholic nations, church leaders have avoided discussing the matter.
At a meeting of the Spanish Bishops' Conference, Cardinal Carlos Amigo said church leaders would have to read the book carefully first.
In the Andes region of South America, there were few mentions of the pope in news media, and his remarks were not mentioned at several Masses attended by Associated Press reporters.
The National Conference of Brazilian Bishops said it would not comment. Brazil has one of the world's most advanced anti-AIDS programs, and the government distributes more than 200 million free condoms each year, especially during Carnival.