WASHINGTON — As state legislatures adjourn over the coming weeks, new Republican majorities backed by GOP governors are leaving their mark in a wave of legislation that reaches far beyond the economic issues that dominated the midterm elections last fall.
South Dakota passed the most restrictive abortion bill in the country, Wisconsin and Ohio moved to limit collective bargaining rights of public workers, and Kansas, Texas, South Carolina and Montana are on the brink of passing measures to impose strict photo identification requirements at the polls.
The measures are among the thousands of bills proposed as newly empowered GOP statehouses take advantage of their first opportunity in decades to have such a broad impact on policy. Twenty legislative bodies across the country flipped from Democratic to Republican control, and the party picked up governorships in 10 states.
"There's been a real seismic change in the states, and the effect will be felt for many years," said Ohio state Rep. Bob Mecklenborg, a key player in Ohio's voter ID measure. "However, we must be very smart in our approach on many measures and not overplay our hand."
Although only a fraction of these GOP-sponsored bills will pass by the time legislatures wrap it up this spring, the measures will have a shelf life at least into next year, before the 2012 elections.
Republicans say that the policy issues are a natural result of their victories in November and add to the fiscal themes of the election.
"I think front and center are the budgets and what states have to do to stay viable," said Chris Jankowski, president of the Republican State Leadership Committee, a caucus of state Republican leaders. But, he added, "as far as issues such as abortion are concerned, the Republican Party is against abortion and some states are choosing to deal with this."
Liberal groups have criticized the focus on conservative social measures.
"Most Republicans campaigned on the economy — promising more jobs," said Marge Baker, executive vice president for policy and programs at People for the American Way. "But what we are seeing is that, instead of creating jobs, they are racing to push through a comprehensive social agenda."