WASHINGTON — Rep. Dan Lungren knows what it's like to have a big bull's eye plastered on his back.
The Democratic Party and labor and environmental groups have spent $4.7 million on TV commercials and other efforts to unseat the nine-term Republican congressman from California. That makes him one of the biggest targets of outside groups, which are throwing unprecedented sums of money into House races this year.
"I don't recognize the person they're portraying," Lungren said about the ads that paint him as an ally of Wall Street and enemy of Medicare and abortion rights. He added, "Yeah, these ads have a considerable impact."
The chance to influence the outcomes of the Nov. 6 election has led the political parties and scores of corporate, union and other organizations to spend a record $253 million so far on their own TV ads, radio spots and other expenses in House races, according to the nonpartisan Center for Responsive Politics, which monitors campaign spending. That compares with $236 million two years ago.
The Supreme Court's Citizens United ruling in 2010 allowed such spending without limits, and sometimes without identifying contributors, but it must be done independently, without consulting candidates.
"We try to play where we can have an impact," said Seth Johnson, who oversees political spending by the American Federation of State, County and Municipal Employees. It has poured millions into House races.
Of total spending by groups outside House candidates' own campaigns, $139 million has been for Republicans and $114 million for Democrats. That GOP advantage is expected to swell as well-financed conservative groups such as American Crossroads, organized by political operative Karl Rove, spend more in the final push before the election.
California, with nine competitive House races, has seen the most outside spending, at $36 million, according to the Sunlight Foundation, a nonpartisan group that tracks political spending. Other states where groups have spent into eight figures are Illinois with $30 million, New York with $24 million, Ohio with $14 million and Florida with $10 million.
As of Friday, more than $8 million has been spent by outside groups on each of a pair of races: Republican Keith Rothfus' attempt to oust Democratic Rep. Mark Critz in Pittsburgh's northern suburbs, and a bitter race in northeastern Ohio between two incumbents, Democrat Betty Sutton and Republican Jim Renacci.
Lungren's Democratic opponent is physician Ami Bera. Outside groups, mainly the GOP and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, have spent $2.7 million against Bera. Total outside spending in this race is $7.4 million so far.
Outside spending has topped $1 million in 57 House races and $3 million in 32 contests, according to the Sunlight Foundation, and that spending has benefited Republicans more in about 60 percent of the contests. In the entire 435-member House, only about 60 races are considered competitive.
Half of the outside spending has occurred this month and one-third came in the past 10 days, Sunlight said.
Much of the money is for television. From June 1 through Oct. 21, House candidates and groups helping them aired 195,000 spots on broadcast and national cable TV stations for Democrats and 203,000 for Republicans, according to the Wesleyan Media Project, which analyzes campaign advertising data from a private company, Kantar Media/CMAG.
The biggest spenders are each party's House campaign organizations. As of Friday, the National Republican Congressional Committee was outspending the Democratic Congressional Campaign Committee, $57 million to $46 million.
Other top spenders include the Chamber of Commerce and the antitax Americans for Tax Reform on the Republican side, and the Service Employees International Union and AFSCME on behalf of Democrats.