MANILA, Philippines — Under a reforming president, the Philippines emerged as a rising economic star in Asia, but the trail of death and destruction left by Typhoon Haiyan has highlighted a key weakness: fragile and patchy infrastructure after decades of neglect and corruption.
Low rates of insurance in the Philippines mean the disaster is likely to sap government finances, but analysts say it might not slow growth significantly because of the small role the affected region plays in the wider economy.
Haiyan's devastation, however, underlines the pressing need to spend more money to build hard assets such as more roads, ports and power lines — not only to improve living standards, but also to better withstand the storms, earthquakes and other natural disasters that strike the country with numbing regularity.
The Philippines has the lowest percentage of paved roads when compared with neighbors Indonesia, Malaysia, Vietnam, Thailand and Singapore, according to data compiled by foreign business groups in the Philippines in 2010. It also had the worst scores in other key indicators, such as fixed phone lines, households with power and electricity lost in transmission.
"It's hard to prepare for the worst storm in the world," said HSBC economist Trinh Nguyen. "But, at the same time, one of the issues now is there isn't a way to access these places that are severely hit. The roads are not there."
The Philippines is the country that's most at risk to natural hazards, according to UK-based risk analysis firm Maplecroft. The country loses $1.6 billion a year, on average, because of such disasters, according to the Asian Development Bank.
Despite the challenges posed by natural disasters, President Benigno Aquino III, who took office in 2010, has managed to steer the economy into one of Asia's fastest growing, raising hopes that millions would be pulled out of poverty. Quarterly growth has risen as high as 7.8 percent this year, outpacing China.
Reflecting improved finances, Moody's, Standard & Poor's and Fitch have all given the country an investment grade credit rating, allowing the government to borrow money more cheaply for big projects.