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U.S. in Afghanistan as long as the Soviets

Mujahedeen guerrillas sit atop a captured Russian T-55 tank in 1987. The U.S. military presence in Afghanistan is about to surpass in length the Soviet occupation of the country. 

Associated Press (1987)

Mujahedeen guerrillas sit atop a captured Russian T-55 tank in 1987. The U.S. military presence in Afghanistan is about to surpass in length the Soviet occupation of the country. 

KABUL, Afghanistan — The Soviet Union couldn't win in Afghanistan, and now the United States is about to have something in common with that futile campaign: nine years, 50 days.

Today, the U.S.-led coalition will have been fighting in this South Asian country for as long as the Soviets did in their humbling attempt to build a socialist state. The two invasions had different goals — and dramatically different body counts — but whether they have different outcomes remains to be seen.

A Pentagon-led assessment released this week described the progress made since the United States injected 30,000 more troops into Afghanistan earlier this year as fragile.

The top U.S. military commander in Afghanistan, Gen. David Petraeus, has said NATO's core objective is to ensure that Afghanistan "is never again a sanctuary to al-Qaida or other transnational extremists that it was prior to 9/11."

The only route to that goal is "to help Afghanistan develop the ability to secure and govern itself," he said. "Now not to the levels of Switzerland in 10 years or less, but to a level that is good enough for Afghanistan."

To reach that, there is an ongoing effort to get the Taliban to the negotiating table. President Hamid Karzai has set up a committee to try to make peace, and the military hopes its campaign will help force the insurgents to seek a deal.

When the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan on Dec. 27, 1979, its stated goal was to transform Afghanistan into a socialist state. The Soviets sought to prop up a communist regime facing a popular uprising, but left defeated on Feb. 15, 1989.

In 1992, the pro-Moscow government of Mohammad Najibullah collapsed, and U.S.-backed rebels took power. The Taliban eventually seized Kabul after a civil war that killed thousands more. It ruled with a strict interpretation of Islamic law until it was ousted by the U.S.-led invasion.

Nader Nadery, an Afghan analyst who has studied the Soviet and U.S. invasions, said "the time may be the same" for the two conflicts, "but conditions are not similar."

More than a million civilians died as Soviet forces propped up the government of Babrak Karmal in a war against anticommunist mujahedeen forces.

Michael O'Hanlon, a senior fellow at the Brookings Institution think tank and Afghanistan expert, said NATO forces have killed fewer than 10,000 civilians and a comparable number of insurgents.

The allied military presence has also been far smaller and more targeted. O'Hanlon pointed out that at the height of the resistance, 250,000 mujahedeen, representing all Afghan ethnic groups, fought the Soviets, while "the current insurgency is perhaps one-eighth as large and is only Pashtun."

"The Soviet war set Afghanistan back dramatically from what had been a weak but functioning state. NATO has, by contrast, helped Afghanistan to a 10 percent annual economic growth rate, 7 million kids are now in school, and most people have access to basic health care," O'Hanlon said.

He also points out that although Karzai was hand-picked by the United States after the invasion "he has since been elected twice by his own people."

Four arrested in election fraud

The Afghan attorney general's office on Thursday announced four arrests in its investigation of fraud during the controversial Sept. 18 parliamentary election. Deputy Attorney General Rahmatullah Nazari told reporters that two employees of Afghanistan's Independent Election Commission and two people working in the money transfer business had been arrested and that an arrest warrant had been issued for a third commission employee. The election was plagued by irregularities and voter intimidation, and election officials discarded 1.3 million ballots — nearly a quarter of the total — for fraud and disqualified 19 winning candidates for cheating. The prospect of the Supreme Court hearing disputed election cases has raised speculation among Western diplomats that Karzai or his advisers are behind the attorney general's investigation and would pressure the Supreme Court to rule in favor of candidates backed by the palace.

U.S. in Afghanistan as long as the Soviets 11/25/10 [Last modified: Monday, November 7, 2011 1:24pm]
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