NEW YORK — Payday loans may be coming to a bank near you.
They're marketed under a different name, but a handful of major banks already let customers borrow against their paychecks for a fee. And there are signs the option may soon become more widely available.
Banks say their loans are intended for emergencies, and they are quick to distance themselves from the payday lending industry. But consumer advocates say these direct deposit loans — as banks prefer to call them — bear the same predatory trademarks as the payday loans commonly found in low-income neighborhoods.
Specifically: fees that amount to triple-digit interest rates, short repayment periods and the potential to ensnare customers in a cycle of debt.
With a traditional payday loan, for example, a customer might pay $16 to borrow $100. If the loan is due in two weeks, that translates into an annual interest rate of 417 percent.
Since the borrowers who use payday loans are often struggling to get by, it's common for them to seek another loan by the time of their next paycheck. Critics say this creates a cycle where borrowers continually fork over fees to stay afloat.
Banks say their direct deposit loans are different because they come with safeguards to prevent such overreliance.
Wells Fargo, for example, notes customers can borrow only up to half their direct deposit amount or $500, whichever is less.
Its fees are cheaper too, at $7.50 for every $100 borrowed — although that still amounts to a 261 percent annualized interest rate over the typical pay cycle. The amount of the advance and the fee are automatically deducted from the next direct deposit.
U.S. Bank, Fifth Third Bank and Regions Financial offer loans with similar terms and restrictions.
"When you're allowed to be indebted for six billing cycles in a row, that's not a short-term loan," says Uriah King, vice president for state policy at the Center for Responsible Lending, an advocacy group based in North Carolina. "They call them short-term loans, but that's just not how they're used. And banks know that."
That idea is supported by a study by the Center for Responsible Lending that found direct deposit loan users relied on them for almost six months of the year. About one of every four borrowers was a Social Security recipient.
It's not clear whether the weak economy has increased the use of payday loans. But a group that represents alternative financial services such as payday loans and check cashing, the Community Financial Services Association of America, says that demand for short-term credit has been rising at a steady clip in recent years.
The rollout of the products comes at a key juncture for the industry. Banks are under intense pressure to find new ways to squeeze profits from checking accounts in the face of new regulations.
One particularly lucrative revenue source — overdraft fees — was tightened about a year ago under a rule intended to protect consumers. The rule prohibits banks from charging overdraft fees without first obtaining a customer's active consent for such coverage.
The fees, which are disproportionately incurred by low-income customers, generated an estimated $37 billion in 2009, according to Moebs Services Inc.
Now consumer advocates fear banks will start nudging these same customers toward direct deposit loans.