Apple, for the first time in years, is hearing footsteps.
The maker of iPhones, iPads and iPods has never faced a challenger able to make a truly popular and profitable smartphone or tablet — not Dell, not Hewlett-Packard, not Nokia, not BlackBerry — until Samsung Electronics.
The South Korean manufacturer's Galaxy S III smartphone is the first device to run neck and neck with Apple's iPhone in sales. Armed with other Galaxy phones and tablets, Samsung has emerged as a potent challenger to Apple, the top consumer electronics maker.
The two companies are the only ones turning profits in the highly competitive mobile phone industry, with Apple taking 72 percent of the earnings and Samsung the rest.
Yet these two rivals, who have battled in the marketplace and in the courts worldwide, could not be more different.
Samsung Electronics makes computer chips and flat-panel displays as well as a wide range of consumer products including refrigerators, washers, dryers, cameras, vacuum cleaners, PCs, printers and TVs.
While Apple stakes its success on creating new markets and dominating them, as it did with the iPhone and iPad, Samsung invests heavily in studying existing markets and innovating inside them.
"We get most of our ideas from the market," said Kim Hyun-suk, a Samsung executive vice president. "The market is a driver, so we don't intend to drive the market in a certain direction."
That is in stark contrast to the philosophy of Apple's founder, Steve Jobs, who rejected the notion of relying on market research. He memorably said that consumers don't know what they want.
Nearly everything at Samsung, from the way it does research to its manufacturing, is unlike Apple. It taunts Apple in its cheeky advertisements while Apple stays above the fray.
And Samsung may even be putting some pressure on Apple's world-class designers. Before Apple released the iPhone 5, which had a larger screen than earlier models, Samsung had already been selling phones with even bigger displays, like the 5.3-inch screen Galaxy Note, a smartphone so wide that gadget blogs call it a "phablet."
Samsung outspends Apple on research and development: $10.5 billion, or 5.7 percent of revenue, to $3.4 billion, or 2 percent. Samsung has 60,000 staff members working in 34 research centers across the globe, including Russia, Britain, India, Japan, Israel, China and Silicon Valley. It polls consumers and buys third-party research reports, but it also embeds employees in countries to study trends or merely to find inspiration for ideas.
In courts, jury members have said some of Samsung's research appears to come closer to copying. Apple sued Samsung in U.S. District Court last year for patent infringement and won a $1 billion judgment. One of the most explosive pieces of evidence was a detailed report breaking down each hardware and software feature of the iPhone and how each compared to Samsung phone features. Samsung is fighting the decision in court.
Samsung says studying the market helps it build confidence for the wireless carriers that its mobile devices will sell well. That, in turn, persuades the carriers to aggressively sell Samsung phones and tablets.
Daniel Hesse, Sprint's chief executive, called Samsung a "terrific partner" because of its willingness to work with the carriers on the creation of phones.
For carriers, that could be a refreshing alternative to working with Apple, which completely controls the design of its iPhone's hardware and software.
"They work with the carriers, they want to hear from you what you want, they don't tell you what it's going to be," Hesse said.