AUSTIN, Texas — The walls have started to rise in Austin, forming the shell of HID Global's new $35 million manufacturing, warehousing, distribution and customer service center.
The company has begun to hire the first handful of the 276 workers it pledged to employ in exchange for $3.5 million in local and state tax incentives, although it won't start hiring in earnest until later this year.
Yet already — months before the plant has installed its first machine or produced its first security or identity-authentication card — the expectations for its employee base reflect the widespread transformation sweeping through the U.S. workforce.
A Brookings Institution study released this month reports that the number of jobs that require proficiency in science, technology, engineering or mathematics — often called the STEM fields — is much larger than previously considered.
Using a new, broader definition of STEM-related occupations, Brookings found that U.S. employers provided 26 million such jobs in 2011 — about 20 percent of the country's total nonfarm job base that year, the report said.
HID Global expects about 30 percent of its Austin factory jobs will require some sort of post-high school education, said general manager Jason Bohrer, and virtually all of those positions will require STEM skills.
"The tools have changed" as more and more information technology infrastructure is integrated into the manufacturing line, Bohrer said. "Some of the applications you might run on the factory floor have definitely increased in scope and complexity over the years."
To date, STEM-related careers have often been thought of in white-collar terms — the professor, computer programmer, engineer or accountant. But today, STEM skills are seeping into a much broader range of occupations, including many traditionally considered blue-collar.
"The definition of being an auto mechanic is a hell of a lot different now than it was 30 years ago," said Jon Hockenyos, principal of TXP, an Austin-based economic consulting firm.
Machinists in today's factories often rely on a range of specialized computer programming and math skills to operate modern manufacturing equipment. Those skills, the Brookings report argues, are every bit as STEM-intensive as those used by, say, a website programmer — and should be counted as such.
That ongoing diffusion of skills has sparked dozens of economic and workforce studies around the country, as labor researchers grapple to get a clearer view of how jobs are changing. It has also caught the attention of policymakers, educators and employers, hundreds of whom gathered in Austin last week for the U.S. News and World Report STEM Solutions annual conference.
The conference brought together national, state and local education and employment experts to share ideas and discuss how to better equip the country's workforce for the rising number of jobs that require STEM skills.
U.S. News started the conference two years ago after noticing the rising call for STEM education in both its education and workforce coverage, said editor Brian Kelly.
Kelly and his colleagues found that many educators, policymakers and employers are keenly aware of the ongoing increase in STEM-related occupations, but much of the public remains oblivious to the shift. The country hasn't had a seminal phenomenon that has jolted the public awareness — as Sputnik did to spark the space race in the late 1950s and 1960s.
"We have a slow-motion crisis," he said. "The world is becoming more technological, but there's no Sputnik moment. You have 8 percent unemployment and 3 million open jobs — that seems like a crisis to me."
Yet it hasn't sparked public urgency. The Brookings report, titled "The Hidden STEM Economy," suggests the country has overlooked millions of jobs that pay well by focusing most of its energies on STEM-related careers that require at least a four-year degree.
"The overemphasis on four-year and higher degrees as the only route to a STEM career has neglected cheaper and more widely available pathways through community colleges and even technical high schools," the report said. "This neglect is all the more nonsensical given that roughly half of students who earn four-year STEM degrees start their education at community colleges."
Among its various recommendations, the Brookings report urged a heightened focus on education, including more attention to STEM fields in elementary and high schools, as well as the expansion of sub-bachelor's degree programs in STEM fields.