The donor of a kidney that transmitted a fatal case of rabies to a Maryland man was a 20-year-old airman in Pensacola, training to be an aviation mechanic. When he fell ill two summers ago, physicians thought he had food poisoning from eating fish from the Gulf of Mexico.
His death in a coma three weeks later was attributed to an intestinal infection, dehydration and seizures. He actually died of rabies. The viral infection wasn't suspected before he died, and his organs were offered for donation. It apparently also wasn't suspected when his brain was examined in an autopsy.
Tests this week revealed the virus was a type found in raccoons in North Carolina and Virginia. The man was from North Carolina but hadn't returned home after enlisting in the Air Force 17 weeks before his death. That suggests the virus had been incubating for months before it made him ill.
Those are among the facts epidemiologists are stitching together as they reconstruct a tragic sequence of events that ended in late February with Maryland's first fatal case of rabies in 36 years.
"We are questioning the donor's family and friends. We know that he was an avid hunter and fisherman. He might have come into contact with wildlife somehow. We don't know more at this time," Richard Franka, head of the rabies laboratory at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, said Friday.
Whether it's too risky to use organs from people who die in a coma of unknown causes has been debated by the U.S. transplant community for several years. A 2011 study showed that over a recent three-year period, seven people developed brain infections, three of them fatal, from donated organs.
There are differing reports on whether the airman's physicians thought he had encephalitis.
The man spent four days at the air station's hospital in late August 2011 after suffering abdominal pain and vomiting, according to Cynthia Smith, a Department of Defense spokeswoman. As he worsened, he was transferred to a civilian hospital in Pensacola, which hasn't been identified. There he developed respiratory problems and lapsed into unconsciousness. He was declared brain dead Sept. 7, 2011.
Other people involved in the investigation say the airman's physicians initially thought he had ciguatera, a food-borne illness caused by toxins that can accumulate in saltwater fish. By the time of his death, however, that had been ruled out.
Smith said the cause of death was "acute severe gastroenteritis, complicated by dehydration, electrolyte abnormalities and seizure." However, Matthew Kuehnert, a physician who heads the CDC's office of tissue safety and is helping investigate the case, said the Florida physicians thought the man had died of a brain disease.
Was rabies considered?
"Not to our knowledge," Kuehnert said. "The patient was not tested for rabies either during clinical care or after death at autopsy." He said it "is not unusual for rabies not to be thought of in a patient with encephalitis. It is a very rare disease."
A microscopic examination of brain tissue might have revealed changes characteristic of rabies. By then, however, one kidney had been transplanted into a 48-year-old Army veteran in an operation at Walter Reed National Military Medical Center. Three other organs — another kidney, the liver and the heart — were transplanted into patients in Georgia, North Carolina and Illinois.
Kuehnert said Friday that all of the other patients have started treatment, which consists of an injection of rabies-fighting antibodies and four vaccination shots over a month.
"They're doing fine," he said.
People exposed to the two men are also being tracked down. "Maybe dozens" will need to be vaccinated, too, Franka said.