The U.S. Marine Corps has long assured the public that it closed drinking water wells at Camp Lejeune as soon as it found they were tainted with toxic chemicals.
But a St. Petersburg Times review of Marine Corps documents shows the base failed to close the wells for years — despite stark warnings that its drinking water was befouled by industrial cleaning solvents.
The Corps then provided misleading and incomplete information about the contamination to regulators, the public and its Marines, the review shows.
Today, former Marines and their family members — dubbed "Poisoned Patriots" by Congress — wonder if contaminated water at the North Carolina camp sickened them. At least 146,000 people who lived at Camp Lejeune have signed up to a Marine health registry. The list includes more than 12,000 Floridians. Only one state, North Carolina, has more.
A Tallahassee man with breast cancer who was born at the base says he has identified 50 others like him — men with the rare disease and ties to Lejeune. The cancer cluster, first reported by the Times, has surprised some epidemiologists and is attracting national attention.
Estimates say between 400,000 and 1 million people may have been exposed to tainted water at the camp during a 30-year period ending in 1987.
The Times review of Marine documents shows:
• Beginning in 1980, the Corps and Navy engineers working on its behalf began receiving warnings from chemists about contaminated water at Lejeune. The warnings kept coming, but the Corps did not begin closing wells for another four years.
• The Marines provided regulators with reports that omitted any mention of contaminants. Then it held back the originals that included them.
• The Marines failed to inform regulators — as required by law — about one of the largest threats to base water: storage tanks that were leaking 1,500 gallons of fuel a month.
• The Corps' claim that it had to verify the source of contamination before closing wells is contradicted by a report showing that confirmation came in 1982 — two years before wells were shut. The Corps waited until 1984 to test wells directly for pollution.
Many who love and respect the Corps are unsettled by its behavior at Camp Lejeune.
"Bad water wasn't part of the program when we joined," said retired Marine Joe Moser, 70, of Riverview, who was stationed at Camp Lejeune from 1957 to 1960 and was diagnosed last year with breast and thyroid cancer.
"Now they're just trying to blow us off like it didn't happen," he said. "But it did happen. A man with breast cancer? Goodness. We're all disappointed in the Marine Corps."
Marine officials deny misleading anyone and say three independent reviews, including a criminal probe by the Environmental Protection Agency, cleared the Corps of wrongdoing or efforts to conceal information.
A Corps spokesman said chemicals found in camp water were not regulated in the 1980s and that science has not yet linked exposure to disease.
But at a Senate hearing earlier this month, a Marine general offered a surprising concession about Lejeune.
"Looking back with the lens of 2009 . . . one just shakes their head on how this happened." said Maj. Gen. Eugene Payne. "I can only surmise . . . that we simply did not understand the ramifications of that contamination."
• • •
The story of what some scientists call the worst public drinking-water contamination in the nation's history is told in thousands of Marine Corps, North Carolina and federal documents produced by the EPA investigation of Camp Lejeune water in the 1980s.
That probe led to the camp being listed as a Superfund site in 1989.
Camp Lejeune is a vital base to the Marines. It was founded in 1941 on North Carolina's Atlantic coast and is one of the Corps' busiest and largest bases.
Like other military bases of the era, environmental stewardship there often lagged. The EPA called Lejeune a "major polluter" in the 1970s. The Corps says it disposed of wastes in those early years in ways consistent with common practices of the time.
Records show the Marines dumped oil and industrial wastewater in storm drains. Potentially radioactive materials were buried, including carcasses of dogs used in testing. The camp even located a day care in a former malaria control shop where pesticides were mixed and stored.
One significant source of water contamination was a nearby dry-cleaning business that for years dumped into drains wastewater laden with chemicals used in dry cleaning. Those included tetrachloroethylene, or PCE, a suspected carcinogen.
PCE, which has multiple industrial uses, and another solvent and suspected carcinogen were also used widely by Marines on base to clean machinery.
The Marine Corps has maintained for two decades that the chemicals found in Camp Lejeune drinking water in the 1980s were not regulated. But that is only partly true. In the early 1980s, the EPA did not regulate organic solvents like PCE.
But regulations by the Department of Navy's Bureau of Medicine and Surgery, in force at the base, barred harmful substances in water. And the dangers posed by organic solvents were well known.
Other military bases in the 1970s closed wells tainted with solvents, including Willow Grove Naval Air Station and the Warminster Naval Air Warfare Center, both in Pennsylvania.
And a regulation on the books at Camp Lejeune as early as 1974 shows the Corps knew the danger organic solvents posed. The rule outlined the safe disposal of hazardous wastes such as "organic solvents" and warned they could contaminate drinking water.
The Marine Corps never released that 1974 regulation or other Navy rules governing drinking water to investigators who later reviewed water contamination at Camp Lejeune.
• • •
Dan Mills was a Marine through and through. He joined the Corps as a 17-year-old because his stepfather told him he wasn't tough enough.
Mills got through boot camp. He was overjoyed to be among the elite. The Marines took care of their own.
He was assigned to Camp Lejeune in 1966 and left in 1968, when he left the service.
Mills started to get sick about four years ago. He had always been healthy. He had smoked for a time but quit years ago.
By 2009, doctors had diagnosed Mills with a rare cluster of cancers, each forming separately and not from metastasis.
Mantle cell lymphoma. Prostate cancer. Acute myeloid leukemia. Mills was terminal.
Mills, 62, who lives in the Orlando area, is convinced his illnesses are related to base water. His oncologist wrote that he believes Mills' illnesses may be related to contaminant exposure.
Mills said he doesn't understand why his beloved Corps didn't act sooner to close wells. Still, he is not among the more than 1,500 people who have filed billions of dollars in claims against the Marines.
"It's my Marine Corps," he said. "I love it. But if I found out they deliberately misused me, I'd be very disappointed."
• • •
With tighter environmental regulations looming, military chemists began testing Camp Lejeune drinking water in earnest in October 1980. The base had dozens of water wells.
A test that month detected trace levels of organic compounds, or solvents, in treated water. But for reasons unclear in records, the Marines say they didn't get results until 1982.
Not that it mattered. Camp Lejeune did nothing to investigate the source of contamination even after getting the results.
Also in October 1980, an Army lab began testing treated water from Lejeune's Hadnot Point water system for a potentially dangerous chemical by-product of chlorination. But other chemicals were interfering with the results. That was alarming because such interference is caused by organic compounds, chemists say.
William Neal Jr., chief of laboratory services for the Army lab doing tests, wrote in an Oct. 30, 1980 report, "Water highly contaminated." He mentioned "strong interference" by an organic chemical.
Neal kept testing the water, and his warnings escalated.
Dec. 18, 1980: "Heavy organic interference. You need to analyze for chlorinated organics."
Feb. 9, 1981: "You need to analyze for . . . organics."
March 9, 1981: "Water highly contaminated . . . (Solvents)!"
• • •
Camp Lejeune also began testing water in its rifle range area in 1981 to see if chemicals had drifted from a hazardous waste dump to nearby water wells. These tests involved a water system separate from the one generating Neal's warnings.
A rifle range water well was found to be contaminated with some of the same compounds seen elsewhere at Camp Lejeune.
Three months later, engineers with oversight over drinking water at the base ordered the closure of one rifle range water well.
The Corps did not respond to questions about why it closed one well with "unregulated" chemicals but kept others open.
In 1982, Grainger Laboratories in Raleigh, N.C., was hired to test water at Camp Lejeune. The lab's first test shocked chemists. They found "synthetic organic cleaning solvents" contaminating water from two of the base's largest living areas, where thousands of Marines and family lived.
Mike Hargett, Grainger's co-owner, told the Times that he and a base chemist urged the Marine officer with oversight over water issues to investigate and fix contamination.
But Hargett said, "They would not recognize the hazard. They did not react."
Grainger warnings about contamination persisted in report after report over the next two years. In August 1982, a Grainger report said raw water at a treatment plant was contaminated with solvents, which could only mean one thing: wells themselves were contaminated.
A Marine spokesman said the report did not provide such confirmation, noting the Corps waited until 1984 to test wells directly because evidence of contamination was inconsistent.
Bruce Babson, the Grainger chemist testing base water, told the Times Grainger warnings were not well received by the Corps.
"I was standing my ground from a lot of pressure from people who did not want the evidence in the record," Babson said. "But I wouldn't let it go."
In conjunction with the Navy, Camp Lejeune in April 1983 finished an initial study of hazardous waste sites on base that posed health risks, a project conducted at other bases around the nation.
Copies went to state regulators. The report said nothing about tainted water.
Not long after, Camp Lejeune's assistant chief of staff for facilities sent North Carolina environmental officials a review of base water testing. The summary said nothing of contamination.
By then, Hargett was growing frustrated. His lab was warning the Corps repeatedly, to no avail.
So he tipped off North Carolina officials that the Corps was holding back Grainger's original reports showing contamination. The state demanded the originals.
The Marines never sent them, records show, and the state eventually backed down.
But things started to unravel for the Marine Corps in 1984. Chemists began testing wells directly. In July of that year, a test of one well detected a chemical found in gasoline at a level that was dangerously high and should have led to the immediate closure of the well, records show.
The well remained in operation until November. By then, news of the contamination was made public. In late 1984 and 1985 a total of 10 wells would be closed because of contamination.
Four years had elapsed during which Marines, their spouses and their children drank, bathed and cooked with what scientists believe to be some of the most contaminated water in the United States. Federal scientists later estimated contamination dated to the 1950s.
As news of tainted water became public, Camp Lejeune's commanding general at the time, L.H. Buehl, reassured residents of a base subdivision where Marine families lived that contaminants in water were "minute (trace)."
That wasn't true. Levels of chemicals were among the highest ever seen in a large, public water system, scientists say.
The organic solvent and degreaser trichloroethylene, a suspected carcinogen, was found at 1,400 parts per billion at a base hospital tap, 1,148 ppb at an elementary school, 18,900 ppb in a water well.
Solvent levels in tap water were up to 280 times higher than what the EPA today considers safe.
• • •
With news of contamination now public, the EPA opened an inquiry. But one of the Marines' first overviews to the agency provided inaccurate information, records show.
Arthur Linton, an EPA official in its Environmental Assessment Branch, recounted a meeting with Corps officials in a Feb. 3, 1986, letter he sent to Camp Lejeune.
EPA officials said they were told by the Corps that it learned about contamination by unidentified pollutants in 1983 or 1984. In fact, they were identified earlier. And the chemicals were not unidentified.
Linton also wrote that the Corps told the EPA that treated, potable water had not been contaminated when, in fact, it had.
The Corps would not comment on this letter.
And by 1988, neither the EPA nor the state had yet been told about what may have been one of the biggest threats to base water — storage tanks that had leaked thousands of gallons of fuel into the earth.
Later that year, A.P. Tokarz, a Marine lawyer based at Lejeune, wrote in a memo that he had been informed that 1,500 gallons of fuel were leaking each month and that any fix was still "out-years," or years distant.
He said the camp was legally required to tell the state, but hadn't.
"From an attorney's perspective concerned with responding to potential litigation," Tokarz wrote, "it appears patently unreasonable to wait until out-years to replace the tanks. Such delay will result in an indefensible waste of money, and a continuing potential threat to human health and the environment."
The fuel depot was a long-standing problem at Camp Lejeune. In 1979 up to 30,000 gallons of fuel had been spilled. The Corps notes it told the state and EPA about that leak in 1983.
Finally, the fuel depot was shut down in 1989 and the state informed about leaks. Years later, the Corps told regulators that fuel wasn't technically hazardous, a Marine document shows.
Terry Puida, 43, a Land O'Lakes resident, is a testicular cancer survivor who was born at Camp Lejeune in 1966 and is the son of a Marine. He too believes his cancer is related to Camp Lejeune's fouled water and said the Corps failed its Marines.
"It's frightening," Puida said. "Don't get me wrong. I'm as red, white and blue as anyone. I love my country. But somebody needs to hold the Marines accountable."
William R. Levesque can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org or (813) 226-3432.