Robert W. Fogel, 86, a Nobel-winning economist from the University of Chicago whose number-crunching empiricism upended established thinking, most provocatively about the economics of slavery, died on Tuesday in Oak Lawn, Ill. He concluded that economic growth in America during the 19th century would have been essentially the same even without the railroad, which flew in the face of conventional thought, and he co-wrote a controversial book about slavery that attempted to debunk the commonly held view that slavery was unprofitable and in decline immediately prior to the Civil War.
Barbara Vucanovich, 91, who traveled from New York to Reno, Nev., in 1949 to get a quick divorce and ended up staying and becoming the first woman to be sent to Congress from Nevada, serving seven terms in the House as a conservative Republican, died on Monday in Reno.
Harold J. Cromer, a hoofer and comedian who as Stumpy, half of the vaudevillian duo Stump and Stumpy, performed antic dance routines in clubs around the country after World War II and later on television, died on June 8 in New York. He was in his early 90s.
Doug Bailey, 79, who helped define the expanding role of political consultants in the 1960s and '70s and later founded the Hotline, a digest of political news, distributed by fax, that became an indispensable tool of the political trade in the pre-Web 1980s and '90s, died Monday in Arlington, Va.