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Black like whom, exactly?

Ira Berlin begins The Making of African America by recounting a conversation he had several years ago with a small group of black radio technicians, most of them recent immigrants born in Africa or the Caribbean. He had just been interviewed on a local public radio station on the topic "Who freed the slaves?"

Berlin had argued that enslaved Southerners played a significant role in their own liberation. He found that the technicians were "deeply interested" in the events leading up to the Emancipation Proclamation of 1863; yet he was troubled by the fact that they felt these events "had nothing to do with them. Simply put, it was not their history."

In his new book, Berlin aims to reformulate the grand arc of African-American history in a way that is true to the past and at the same time includes this newest generation of immigrants. He highlights the 1965 Immigration and Nationality Act, arguing that this piece of legislation was just as significant as the 1965 Voting Rights Act in its transformative effects on African America, and on all of American society. For the first time since 1790, when Congress barred the entry of nonwhite people into the United States, substantial numbers of Africans and persons of African descent were allowed to immigrate to this country.

Since 1965, the number of black immigrants has become so large — greater even than the total number of Africans forcibly imported during the slave trade — that they account for one-quarter of the growth in the African-American population. In the early 21st century, fully 10 percent of all black Americans are either immigrants or the children of immigrants.

Berlin, who teaches at the University of Maryland, draws from his own award-winning research on the pre-1900 period and also makes a provocative foray into recent American history to suggest that this latest wave of immigration is the most recent in a series of four mass migrations that have shaped this country's history. First came the Middle Passage, the forced removal of millions of people from the African continent from the 17th through the early 19th centuries. There followed the antebellum forced migration of enslaved men, women, and children from the Upper South and Atlantic coast into the western interior of the country.

The 20th century saw a voluntary migration of black Southerners to the urban North beginning in the World War I era and the post-1965 voluntary immigration of Africans and persons of African descent to the United States. Black immigrants from all over the world, people with no legacy of enslavement or forced migration, are remaking American society today; at the same time, they recapitulate the struggles of previous generations of blacks who entered or moved around within the United States and had to make a life for themselves in a new home that might or might not have been of their own choosing.

Onto this new history Berlin overlays a "contrapuntal narrative" based on the interplay between what the scholar Paul Gilroy calls "routes and roots" — the tension between a peripatetic existence on the one hand and an attachment to home on the other. Berlin eschews a view of African-American history that stresses only forward movement, a gradual triumph over oppression through the generations. At the same time, he seeks to show that, despite progress punctuated by setbacks, African-American history "is, in the end, of one piece."

Berlin's new, more inclusive story of migrations of "multiple strands, nonlinear character, and unpredictable outcomes" is far more nuanced than the traditional "Whiggish" narrative of inexorable progress toward democracy and civil rights. At the same time, in part because it is so complex, this narrative may not offer the kind of shared history that is crucial to a shared identity among otherwise disparate peoples. Indeed, this book is a reminder of how fraught the forging of "African" and "African-American" identities has been — and will continue to be.

For those recent immigrants who resist the notion of an overarching African-American identity based on either skin color or history, even — or maybe especially — a sweeping story of migratory experience may lack specific cohesive power in a global era marked by as widespread mobility as ours is.

In the United States, "racial" formulations are fluid and inconsistent; yet "black" is often shorthand, or code, for a person whose forebears were enslaved in the British North American colonies or the antebellum United States. Neither skin color nor African heritage is a necessary, critical marker of a single African-American identity.

"Studies of whiteness affirm that race remains a driving force in understanding American life," Berlin writes, but perhaps it is mainly the prejudices of whites, and not the self-identity of blacks, that makes "race" today. Perhaps the new black immigrants relate more directly to the life stories of other new immigrants from, say, Southeast Asia or Latin America, than to the experiences of African-Americans whose families have lived in this country for generations.

The Great Recession has eroded many of the hard-won gains among the black working and middle classes — immigrant and native-born alike — of the last half-century. It is possible that, as Berlin implies, out of this shared hardship among blacks of various nationalities a new form of African-American identity will emerge. But it seems equally possible that black Americans will come to recognize their common suffering with other Americans of different backgrounds and in the process forge a new identity — this one based on vulnerability to foreclosures and unemployment — rather than on African-American history.

What will happen is likely to hinge on perceptions of whites themselves — whether or not they can free themselves from their own "racial" history and see in their struggles a common bond with people of African descent, and people descended from slaves.

Jacqueline Jones teaches American history at the University of Texas-Austin. She is the author of, most recently, Saving Savannah: The City and the Civil War.

The Making of African America:

The Four Great Migrations

By Ira Berlin

320 pages, Viking Adult, $27.95

Excerpt: The Making of African America

This excerpt (pages 227-228) deals with tensions that can exist between recent immigrants and longtime residents.

At the beginning of the 21st century, tensions between American-born and foreign-born blacks remained. Even the most routine interactions could reveal that distrust overwhelmed camaraderie. One authoritative survey of American-born blacks and West Indian and African (Ghanaian and Nigerian) immigrants concluded that while these groups shared appreciation of a common African heritage, "preconceived notions and myths about each other … allowed only a surface cordiality." These groups "remained suspicious that each wanted to

get what was the other's just due."

Such conflicts produced different strategies for addressing the omnipresent matter of race. While American-born blacks continued to press for equality, immigrants often dismissed the African American protest tradition as a self-defeating culture of complaint. Meanwhile, they looked inside their own nationally or ethnically defined communities and bolstered their ties to their homelands. Often they greeted what they saw as an African American preoccupation with "their rights" with a shrug or a curt "get over it." Asked how the newcomers' perspective differed from that of African Americans, one West Indian put the matter this way: "We are concerned about racism. But basically we don't walk around with a chip on our shoulders like African Americans, although … we experience a lot of racial prejudice. America owes African Americans something … opportunity. We feel less owed." Such views imply another, often unspoken, belief that black Americans have not taken advantage of the opportunities available if they worked hard and took responsibility for their families and for each other. © Viking Adult

Black like whom, exactly? 03/20/10 [Last modified: Friday, March 19, 2010 8:04pm]
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