WASHINGTON — The federal government officially shut down early today for the second time in three weeks after a single senator, Rand Paul of Kentucky, held up a vote on a far-reaching budget deal that would have staved it off.
Senators were still expected to vote in favor of the deal in a series of votes beginning about 1 a.m. The House was to follow before daybreak, although the outcome in that chamber was less certain. If the House approves the deal, the government will reopen before the workday begins.
But Paul, a Republican, will have made his point. Angered at the huge spending increases at the center of the deal, Paul delayed passage for hours with a demand to vote on an amendment that would keep in place strict caps on spending that the deal would raise.
"The reason I’m here tonight is to put people on the spot," Paul said. "I want people to feel uncomfortable. I want them to have to answer people at home who said, ‘How come you were against President Obama’s deficits and then how come you’re for Republican deficits?’?"
The shutdown comes on the heels of a three-day closure brought about by Senate Democrats last month. As midnight approached, Paul did not relent, bemoaning from the Senate floor what he saw as out-of-control government spending and repeatedly rebuffing attempts by his fellow senators to move ahead with a vote.
"I think the country’s worth a debate until 3 in the morning, frankly," he said.
Senate leaders were left helpless.
"I think it’s irresponsible," said Sen. John Cornyn of Texas, the No. 2 Senate Republican, lamenting what he described as "the act of a single senator who just is trying to make a point but doesn’t really care too much about who he inconveniences."
Paul’s ideological opponents were not buying his fiscal rectitude either. Sen. Brian Schatz, D-Hawaii, posted on Twitter: "Rand Paul voted for a tax bill that blew a $1.5 trillion hole in the budget. Now he is shutting the government down for three hours because of the debt. The chance to demonstrate fiscal discipline was on the tax vote. Delaying a vote isn’t a profile in courage, it’s a cleanup."
Before Paul waged his assault on the budget deal, trouble was already brewing in the House, where angry opposition from the Republicans’ most ardent conservative members, coupled with Democratic dissenters dismayed that the deal did nothing for young unauthorized immigrants, created new tension as the clock ticked toward midnight.
Rep. Nancy Pelosi of California, the Democratic leader, told a closed-door meeting of House Democrats that she would oppose the deal and said Democrats would have leverage if they held together to demand a debate on immigration legislation. But she suggested she would not stand in the way of lawmakers who wanted to vote their conscience.
The struggle to push the bill through the House highlighted the divisions within the Democratic caucus over how hard to push on the issue of immigration.
The text of the deal, stretching more than 600 pages, was released late Wednesday night, revealing provisions large and small that would go far beyond the basic budget numbers. The accord would raise strict spending caps on domestic and military spending in this fiscal year and the next one by about $300 billion in total. It would also lift the federal debt limit until March 2019 and includes almost $90 billion in disaster relief in response to last year’s hurricanes and wildfires.
It would also keep the government funded for another six weeks, giving lawmakers time to put together a spending bill that would stretch through the rest of the fiscal year, which ends Sept. 30. The previous temporary funding measure, which was passed to end the past shutdown, expired at midnight Thursday.
The deal had been expected to sail through the Senate, and the House had planned to vote on it later Thursday, until Paul took his stand.
The White House Office of Management and Budget instructed federal agencies to prepare for a possible lapse in funding, a spokeswoman said Thursday night. Even with a technical lapse in government funding, the effect of the shutdown could be minimal if lawmakers can approve the deal before the workday today.
Among the Democratic ranks in the House, the objections were also strenuous, but for reasons very different from Paul’s.
With the budget impasse appearing to be on the cusp of a resolution, lawmakers were girding for a fight over the fate of young immigrants who were brought to the country illegally as children, known as Dreamers, as well as President Donald Trump’s plan to build a wall along the border with Mexico and other possible immigration policy changes.