WASHINGTON — While Sen. Marco Rubio may be among the most prominent faces of the immigration battle in Washington, there is another Cuban-American from Miami who has been almost as critical to guiding the contentious proposal through the perils of Capitol Hill.
His name is Leon Fresco.
But unlike Rubio and thousands of other Cuban Miamians, Fresco's a Democrat.
He is New York Democratic Sen. Charles Schumer's right-hand man on immigration and arguably the debate's most critical cog whom few people know.
Fresco, 35, led the brutal negotiating sessions, some of which lasted until 2 a.m., with staffers of the so-called "Gang of Eight" bipartisan Senate team. He orchestrated several of the most delicate compromises, including the final and most difficult agreement between labor and business interests, which allowed both Democrats and Republicans to claim victory.
And it was his hands on the keyboard drafting passages of the original, 844-page bill that the group ratified.
"He put in the longest of all the long hours," said Chandler Morse, the immigration staff negotiator for Republican Sen. Jeff Flake of Arizona. "He was the one that everyone called.
"He was the one that the Republicans called when they were mad about how things were going," Morse said. "And he was the one Democrats called when they were mad about how things were going. And in a two-party system, someone is always angry."
As most often is the case in Washington, the most significant work on the deal happened behind closed doors.
Senators gave their negotiators the principles to follow, a framework, compromises they could and could not accept, and then sent them off to find a solution on matters that have plagued the nation for decades.
The staffers, about 20 ranging in age from their late 20s to their mid 40s, had the daunting task of coming up with a new law of the land that likely would impact almost every aspect of American life, from who we let in the country to who we elect for office.
For Fresco, the charge was clear: Figure out a way. Find that sweet spot where everyone can get something they want, without conceding so much they can't face their constituencies. Make a deal.
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The group met daily from January to April in a room they dubbed "The Dome."
Fresco set the group's agenda. He pushed compromise, but he also established bright lines where he and other Democrats wouldn't budge — such as refusing to raise a controversial 15,000-visa cap for foreign construction workers that builders and contractors find preposterously low. He led the daily disputes over border security provisions, business and labor demands, and establishing the criteria used to determine who among the 11 million here illegally would have the privilege of being able to apply for citizenship. He also wasn't afraid to speak his mind when he felt he or his boss had been blindsided.
When Rubio released a statement on Easter Sunday calling talks of a deal premature after Schumer and Sen. Lindsey Graham, R-S.C., went on a media blitz touting an imminent agreement, a frustrated Fresco fired off an angry email to Enrique Gonzalez, Rubio's immigration negotiator.
"Tell your boss he already paid for the caterer, he's got to go through with the wedding now," Fresco wrote on a cab ride home.
Gonzalez responded unapologetically: "You know Cubans are always willing to blow up a good party at any time," Fresco recalled.
Rubio's spokesman declined any interviews, noting an office policy against staff profiles.
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It was actually two Cuban-Americans from Miami who dominated the immigration talks. Gonzalez, who also is a Miami immigration attorney, led the Republican negotiations.
Despite often butting heads, the two grew tight over shared cab rides home and late-night dinners at Johnny Rockets and Chipotle, according to Fresco and others familiar with the negotiations. They discussed law school and their legal backgrounds. Fresco went to Yale, Gonzalez to Cornell.
The email crack about the caterer was classic Fresco. He was known to speak his mind, sometimes to his own detriment, but even the barbs were laced with humor.
The pointed remark was a line from the movie A Night at the Roxbury, a cheesy 1998 comedy starring Will Ferrell and Chris Kattan about two head-bobbing brothers who fail miserably at picking up women.
Staffers called them "Leonisms." Fresco has a near encyclopedic knowledge of pop references. He'd sometimes break into song or quote lines from a movie — anything to boost morale, to keep talks moving.
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Fresco joined Schumer's staff in 2009, when Schumer was talking with Graham about bringing back up a comprehensive immigration package. The New York senator describes Fresco as "our immigration genius" and has his number memorized.
"I must dial it 10 times a day," Schumer said.
He praised Fresco for coming up with some of the toughest legislative compromises, including breaking a deadlock between business and labor over wages for future immigrant workers.
"When there is a problem that seems intractable, you push the Leon button and out comes a solution that both sides like," Schumer said.
But Fresco sometimes talks too much — or too loud. It's Fresco whispering in Schumer's ear during sensitive committee negotiations. But he speaks so loudly that the rest of the group can hear him. "I say, 'Leon, be quiet,'" Schumer said.
Citing Fresco's message to Gonzalez, Schumer said Fresco may have been a little too pointed with his remark, but he called the message effective because he and others had felt blindsided by Rubio.
Fresco says he can relate to Rubio. He also grew up Republican with a "pro-Republican, pro right-wing" mind-set that he maintained until law school.
His parents remain conservative. "My father loves Rubio," Fresco said.