BRUSSELS — A reinvigorated NATO flexed old Cold War muscles Tuesday as the Atlantic alliance's chief recommitted to defending Eastern European and Baltic nations rattled by Russia's military intervention in Ukraine and its annexation of Crimea.
At the opening of a two-day meeting of NATO foreign ministers, Secretary General Anders Fogh Rasmussen said the alliance has seen no signs of Russian troop withdrawals along the Ukraine border, as Moscow has claimed.
The alliance moved to suspend many military and civilian ties with Russia over its military incursion and annexation of Crimea, but it stopped short of ordering new troop deployments of its own, a move that could provoke a larger confrontation.
"NATO has consistently worked for closer cooperation and trust with Russia" for two decades, the alliance ministers said in a statement. "However, Russia has violated international law" and its agreements with NATO, they said. "It has gravely breached the trust upon which our cooperation must be based."
Ukraine is not a member of the alliance but cooperates with it, to Russia's frequent dismay. Ukraine's foreign minister reiterated Tuesday that his nation is not seeking NATO membership now but is exploring greater cooperation.
NATO foreign ministers agreed Tuesday to intensify the alliance's partnership with Ukraine and provide additional assets to Eastern European partners.
"Russia's aggression against Ukraine challenges our vision of a Europe whole, free and at peace," Rasmussen said. "We are now considering all options to enhance our collective defense, including an update and further development of defense plans, enhanced exercises and also appropriate deployment."
The United States has joined Black Sea naval exercises, and NATO members have increased air patrols over the Baltic states and employed AWACS surveillance planes over Poland and Romania.
Eastern European leaders have expressed unhappiness with the pace at which NATO has sought to bulk up its presence on the front lines with Russia. Polish Prime Minister Donald Tusk said the results have been "unsatisfactory."
"We are gaining something step by step, but the pace of NATO increasing its military presence for sure could be faster," he said.
NATO, originally formed as a U.S.-backed bulwark against the Soviet Union, has expanded in the past 15 years to include many former Soviet satellite states, often over Russian complaints. NATO sometimes invites Russia to attend sessions, but that was not the case this time.