In its first detailed military planning for the post-Cold War era, the Pentagon envisions seven scenarios for potential foreign conflicts that could draw U.S. forces into combat over the next 10 years, according to internal Pentagon documents.
Maintaining forces capable of fighting and winning one or more of the seven scenarios outlined in the documents would require a robust level of defense spending into the next century.
The classified documents indicate that the leadership of the Defense Department has instructed the military chiefs to request forces and weapons sufficient to fight large regional wars _ in two scenarios, against Iraq and North Korea, and in a third scenario, against both countries at the same time.
A fourth scenario envisions a major military campaign in Europe to prevent a resurgent Russia from pursuing expansionist aims.
In the fifth and sixth scenarios, the document also says the United States should be prepared to respond to contingencies like a military coup in the Philippines that endangers the 5,000 Americans living there; or a "narco-terrorist" plot against the government of Panama that threatens access to the Panama Canal, requiring both a Marine amphibious invasion and an airborne assault.
In a seventh scenario, the documents call for a strategy to deter the re-emergence later in this decade of a global "adversarial rival" or "international coalition with an aggressive expansionist security policy." To do this, the United States would have to maintain a "technological" and "doctrinal" edge "and a credible capability to expand military forces."
The planning described in the documents does not mean that any of the conflicts described are inevitable or imminent, and the Pentagon itself calls the scenarios "illustrative" and "not predictive."
Given current circumstances, many seem improbable. Iraq, for example, seems years away from rebuilding its military forces to the point where it could seriously threaten its neighbors with an invasion, although its remaining nuclear ability remains a source of concern.
But unlike the dozens of contingency plans the Pentagon develops for the use of U.S. military forces abroad, the seven scenarios will serve as the foundation for long-range budget planning and determining the number and kind of troops and weapons the country should maintain.
In recent history, such fundamental force and budget planning has usually occurred with each successive administration.
Congress, which ultimately sets the Pentagon budget, can challenge the Pentagon's planning assumptions and force changes by modifying military spending plans. Both could happen soon, since the scenarios are immediately relevant to the budget for next fiscal year that Defense Secretary Dick Cheney sent to Congress in January.
The 70 pages of planning documents were made available to the New York Times by an official who wished to call attention to what he considered vigorous attempts within the military establishment to invent a menu of alarming war scenarios that can be used by the Pentagon to prevent further reductions in forces or cancellations of new weapon systems from defense contractors.