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THE FLORIDA BLACK HERITAGE TRAIL

Published Mar. 7, 1994|Updated Oct. 6, 2005

Florida Black Heritage Trail, a guidebook, is available for $2.25 by writing to the Department of State, Division of Historic Preservation, 500 S Bronough St., Tallahassee, FL 32399, or by calling (904) 487-2344.

Escambia County

1. Pensacola

Daniel "Chappie" James' Birthplace, 1606 N Alcaniz St. His mother, Lillie A. James, ran a school for black children at this site, too.

Julee Cottage Museum, 210 E Zaragoza St., Seville Square Historic District. This simple wood frame building belonged to Julee Panton, a "free woman of color," who sought to purchase the freedom of her fellow, enslaved blacks. Open 10 a.m.-4:30 p.m. Mon.-Sat. Call (904) 444-8905.

Mount Zion Baptist Church, 528 W Jackson St.

Saint Michael's Creole Benevolent Association Hall, 416 E Government St., Seville Square Historic District. (Private residence.) Constructed in 1895-96, the hall was used for social and cultural activities by Creoles, a racially mixed group isolated from both the white and black communities.

Santa Rosa County

2. Milton

Mount Pilgrim African Baptist Church, Alice and Clara streets. The Mount Pilgrim African Baptist Church was organized in 1866. The structure was designed by Wallace A. Rayfield, a leading black architect in the South in the early 20th century.

3. Bagdad

New Providence Missionary Baptist Church (Bagdad Museum Complex), 4512 Church St. This church is among the oldest in Santa Rosa County. Built in 1901, it is being restored as a community center and museum devoted to the history of Bagdad.

Okaloosa County

4. Crestview

Carver-Hill Memorial Museum, Fairview Park, 900 block of McClelland Street. Constructed in 1942 as a military barracks, the museum is dedicated to the preservation of black culture and to the achievements of the black residents of Crestview. Call (904) 682-3494.

Washington County

5. Vernon

Moss Hill United Methodist Church, 3 miles southeast of Vernon, off Vernon-Greenhead Road. Built in 1857 by church members and their slaves, this simple, weathered, woodframe church is the oldest unaltered building in Washington County.

6. Chipley

Roulhac Middle School, 101 N Pecan St. Named for Washington County's distinguished black educator, T. J. Roulhac, who became supervisor of Washington County's schools for black children in 1913.

Jackson County

7. Marianna

Joseph W. Russ Jr. House, 310 W Lafayette St. (Private residence.) This was the main plantation house near Timothy Thomas Fortune's birthplace. Fortune, often called the dean of black journalism, was born a slave on the plantation in 1856. He wrote three books, published the acclaimed newspaper, The New York Age, and made contributions in education, economics, civil rights and politics.

Franklin County

8. Sumatra

Fort Gadsden State Historic Site, 6 miles southwest of Sumatra off State Road 65. The so-called Negro Fort, located on the lower Apalachicola River, was built and provisioned by the British and staffed by black and Indian forces under a black commandant named Garcia. Open 8 a.m.-sunset year-round. Call (904) 670-8988.

Gadsden County

9. Quincy

Arnett Chapel A.M.E. Church, 209 S Duval St. Organized in 1866, it is among the oldest in Gadsden County.

Hardon Building, 16 W Washington St. Owned by William Hardon, a black man, this was one of the earliest ice and electric plants in Quincy. It's now an office supply business.

Masonic Lodge, 122 S Duval St. Since 1907, this building has been the Masonic lodge meeting hall for black masons.

William S. Stevens Hospital, Roberts and Crawford streets. (Private residence.) Dr. William Spencer Stevens practiced medicine in Quincy for more than 50 years. His fame spread during the yellow fever outbreak of 1906 and the influenza epidemic of 1918.

Leon County

10. Tallahassee

Black Archives Research Center and Museum, Carnegie Library Building, Florida A&M University. More than 100,000 visitors annually see the vast collection that includes slave irons, tribal masks and art demonstrating the cultural maturity of African kingdoms. Open 9 a.m.-4 p.m., Mon-Fri.

First Presbyterian Church, 102 N Adams St. Built in 1838, this is the only church still standing in town from territorial days. The north gallery was set aside for slaves who sat apart from their masters, but were allowed membership.

Florida Agricultural and Mechanical University, South Adams Street. This is the oldest historically black university in Florida, established in 1887 as the Florida State Normal and Industrial School for Negroes.

Gibbs Cottage, South Adams Street. Gibbs Cottage, constructed in 1894, was the home of Thomas Van Renssalaer Gibbs, member of the Florida Legislature who, in 1887, introduced the bill that resulted in the founding of the Florida State Normal and Industrial School for Negroes, now Florida A&M University.

Knott House, 301 E Park Ave. Union Gen. Edward M. McCook made his headquarters here and from the steps of this house issued a general order: President Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation.

John G. Riley House, 419 W Jefferson St. John Gilmore Riley was a black educator and civic leader in Tallahassee in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

St. James C.M.E. Church, 104 N Bronough St. (Private offices.) The Gothic Revival structure was constructed in 1899 and is the oldest black church structure still standing in Tallahassee.

C. K. Steele Memorial, 111 W Tennessee St. A statue and marker commemorate the work of the Rev. Charles Kenzie Steele, one of Florida's outstanding civil rights leaders.

Union Bank Building, Apalachee Parkway and Calhoun Street, 1 block from the Old Capitol. The Union Bank, chartered in 1833, has housed a variety of business and cultural interests, including the National Freedman's Bank for newly emancipated slaves during Reconstruction. Open 10 a.m.-1 p.m. Tues.-Fri.; 1-4 p.m. weekends. Call (904) 487-3803.

Taylor County

11. Perry

Painting entitled "Cypress Logging," U.S. post office, 1600 S Jefferson St. Commissioned by the U.S. Treasury Department, Florida artist George Snow Hill painted this depiction of the lumber industry in which many blacks worked.

Suwannee County

12. Live Oak

African Missionary Baptist Church, 509 Walker Ave. SW, 2 blocks south of U.S. 90. This masonry vernacular building was built in 1910.

Hamilton County

13. White Springs

Stephen Foster State Folk Culture Center, U.S. 41 N, 3 miles east of Interstate 75. This memorial to composer Stephen Foster has animated dioramas, carillon concerts and displays of Florida folklife. An annual folk festival demonstrates artisanship of another century and offers gospel and blues musical programs. Park open 8 a.m.-sunset; buildings open 9 a.m.-5 p.m. Call (904) 397-2733.

Columbia County

14. Lake City

Florida Sports Hall of Fame, 601 Hall of Fame Drive, \ mile north of U.S. 90 and { mile west of Interstate 75. Exhibits and videos highlight the careers of some of Florida's great black sports figures. Open 9 a.m.-9 p.m. Mon-Sat., 10 a.m.-7 p.m. Sun.

Baker County

15. Olustee

Olustee Battlefield State Historic Site, 2 miles east of Olustee on U.S. 90. This site commemorates Florida's major Civil War battle on Feb. 20, 1864. Participants in the battle included three all-black infantry regiments: the 1st North Carolina, the 8th U.S. Colored and the 54th Massachusetts. About one-third of the Union troops were blacks. Open 9 a.m.-5 p.m. daily. Re-enactment held each February. Call (904) 752-3866.

Nassau County

16. American Beach

American Beach, 8 miles south of Fernandina Beach off U.S. AIA on Amelia Island. Established in the 1930s by Abrams L. Lewis, founder of the Afro-American Insurance Co., the resort area became the playground for tens of thousands of segregation-stricken blacks. American Beach has remained a predominantly black oceanfront resort community. The I. H. Burney Park, the first park in Nassau County to be named after an African American, is at the southeast end of Burney Road 1 block south of Lewis Street. Open 7 a.m.-7 p.m. daily.

Duval County

17. Jacksonville

Bethel Baptist Institutional Church, 1058 Hogan St. Since its construction in 1904, this neoclassical revival style building has served as the focal point for the religious and community life of Jacksonville's black residents. The congregation was organized in July 1838.

Catherine Street Fire Station No. 3, 12 Catherine St. Built in 1902 to replace a station destroyed by the Great Jacksonville Fire of 1901, the station was staffed by black firemen for several years. It is now the city's fire historical museum. Tours by appointment. Call (904) 630-2453.

Centennial Hall, 1715 Kings Road. Named to commemorate the centennial celebration of the African Methodist Episcopal Church, this three-story brick structure was built in 1916 by the Rev. Richard L. Brown, one of the few black architects and builders of the period. It now houses the library for Edward Waters College.

Kingsley Plantation State Historic Site, 11676 Palmetto Ave. on Fort George Island off U.S. A1A. Although Zephaniah Kingsley was married to an African woman and advocated lenient treatment of slaves, he believed that slavery assured the success of agriculture in the South. The 1817 house and the tabby slave cabins still exist. Open 8 a.m.-sunset daily. Guided tours Thurs.-Mon. Call (904) 251-3122.

Masonic Temple Building, 410 Broad St. Built in 1912 by the Black Masons of Florida, the six-story red brick structure serves as Headquarters of the Masons of the State of Florida Grand East and focal point for the black community's commercial and fraternal activities.

Mount Olive A.M.E. Church, 841 Franklin St. Designed by Richard L. Brown, Jacksonville's first black architect, the church was build in 1921-22.

Mount Zion A.M.E. Church, 201 E Beaver St. After the Civil War, several dozen Freedmen organized a "society" for religious worship and became formally recognized as the Mount Zion A.M.E. Church on July 28, 1866.

Old Brewster Hospital, 915 W Monroe St. (Private residence.) Built in 1885, this Queen Anne style residence became a hospital and nurse training facility, which was the first Jacksonville hospital for blacks.

Ritz Theater, Davis and State Streets. Located in a traditionally black commercial district in the LaVilla neighborhood, the building was designed by locally prominent architect Jefferson Powell. This exuberant art deco style building, which opened in 1929, included a cinema, shops and offices. Now deteriorated and vacant, the theater may undergo rehabilitation.

Stanton High School, 521 W Ashley St. Stanton High was established in 1868 as the first public school for black children in Jacksonville. It was named for Edwin M. Stanton, an outspoken abolitionist and Secretary of War in the Cabinet of Abraham Lincoln. James Weldon Johnson was a student at Stanton High and served as principal from 1894 to 1902.

Edward Waters College, 1658 Kings Road. The oldest center of black learning in Florida, Edward Waters College was created in 1866 in the aftermath of the Civil War as New England teachers migrated south, assembling former slaves for classes in church basements, boxcars, jails and old buildings. A. Philip Randolph, national leader in the black labor movement, was a graduate.

Clara White Mission, 611-13 W Ashley St. The mission is a memorial to the humanitarian activities of Clara English White and her daughter Eartha M. M. White. Clara White was a pioneer member of Bethel Baptist Church and her influence was felt throughout community life, at free dinners, soup kitchens and holiday celebrations.

St. Johns County

18. St. Augustine

Butler Beach, on Anastasia Island, about 8 miles south of St. Augustine on U.S. A1A. In 1927, Lincolnville businessman Frank B. Butler bought land between the Atlantic Ocean and the Matanzas River that he developed into Butler Beach, for many years the only beach African Americans were allowed to use between Jacksonville and Daytona Beach.

Willie Galimore Community Center, 399 S Riberia St. This recreational facility is named in honor of St. Augustine native Willie Galimore. The former Florida A&M three time All-American played seven years with the Chicago Bears in the National Football League. Call (904) 824-5209.

Gracia Real de Santa Teresa de Mose, 2 miles north of St. Augustine off U.S. A1A. In 1693, King Charles II of Spain decreed runaway slaves were to be given sanctuary in his colonies. Black fugitives from British Georgia made their way south and fought so bravely against a retaliatory attack on St. Augustine by the British in 1728 that the governor abolished the slave market and freed any remaining soldiers who were slaves. Ten years later, Gov. Manuel de Montiano established Fort Mose for the black runaways. The fort and village were abandoned in 1763. A traveling exhibit about Fort Mose is operated by the Florida Museum of Natural History. Call Darcie MacMahon, (904) 392-1721.

Lincolnville Historic District, bounded by Cedar, Riberia, Cerro and Washington streets and DeSoto Place. In 1866, former black slaves began settling a three-block area in St. Augustine at first known as "Africa" but later renamed Lincolnville.

St. Mary's Missionary Baptist Church, 69 Washington St. On June 9, 1964, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. told 300 supporters here he would participate in a sit-in at a motel restaurant the next day, anticipating correctly that he would be jailed. Segregation practices in St. Augustine drew national coverage when police arrested and jailed the 72-year-old mother of the governor of Massachusetts as a demonstrator. The protests in St. Augustine, called "America's oldest segregated city," were a major factor in propelling Congress to pass the Civil Rights Act on June 20, 1964.

St. Paul's A.M.E. Church, 85 Martin Luther King Ave. This 1910 Gothic Revival church served as an assembly point for blacks demonstrating against segregated beaches, lunch counters and other facilities in 1964. Baseball great Jackie Robinson addressed a crowd of 600 here, urging them on in a determined, peaceful struggle.

Cary A. White Sr. Complex, Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind, 207 N San Marco Ave. This classroom and dormitory area is dedicated to the memory of the first black deaf graduate of the Florida School for the Deaf and the Blind who worked at the school for 46 years. Mr. White was an assistant in the dorm where Ray Charles lived while he was a student.

Alachua County

19. Gainesville

Mt. Pleasant A.M.E. Church, 630 NW Second St. This Romanesque Revival style structure was constructed in 1906. The congregation was organized in 1867, making it the earliest formal black congregation in the city.

Pleasant Street Historic District. This is the oldest and largest continuously inhabited black residential area in Gainesville.

Josiah Walls Historical Marker, University Avenue between First and Second Streets. The marker commemorates the first black United States Congressman elected from Florida (1870).

Putnam County

20. Palatka

Bethel A.M.E. Church, 719 Reid St. This Romanesque revival-style building was constructed by the congregation circa 1908-1912.

Finley Homestead, 522 Main St. (Private residence.) This two-story structure was the home of Adam Finley, a free, African American artisan.

Old Central Academy High School, 1207 Washington St. Established in 1892, Central Academy became the first accredited Negro high school in Florida in 1924. The building now serves as the County School Board Service Center.

Volusia County

21. Daytona Beach

Mary McLeod Bethune House, 641 Pearl St. off Second Avenue. This simple two-story structure was the home of Mary McLeod Bethune from the time of its construction in the 1920s until Dr. Bethune's death. It is now a house museum containing original furnishings and archives for the Mary McLeod Bethune papers. Open Mon.-Fri.; tours upon request. Call (904) 255-1401, ext. 372.

Bethune-Cookman College, 640 Second Ave. In 1904, Mary McLeod Bethune established the Daytona Educational and Industrial Training School for Negro Girls. The 1923 merger with the all-male Cookman Institute in Jacksonville created Bethune-Cookman Institute, now known as Bethune-Cookman College.

Museum of Arts and Sciences, 1040 Museum Blvd. A wing of the museum is dedicated to the African cultural history of black Floridians. The African art collection is considered one of the best in the Southeast. Open 9 a.m.-4 p.m. Tues.-Fri.; 12 noon-5 p.m., weekends.

Jackie Robinson Memorial Ball Park, City Island. Baseball Hall of Famer Jackie Robinson played his first exhibition game as a member of the Brooklyn Dodgers farm club in Daytona Beach on March 17, 1946. This was professional baseball's first integrated game. The next year, Robinson joined the Brooklyn Dodgers and made baseball history.

Howard Thurman House, 614 Whitehall St. The childhood home of Howard Thurman is located in one of the oldest residential sections of Daytona Beach.

Marion County

22. Ocala

Fessenden Elementary School, 4200 NW 90th St. Established in 1868, the school became Fessenden Academy in 1898. It was named in honor of Ferdinand Stone Fessenden, a wealthy businessman from Boston who provided financial support and encouraged the American Missionary Association to sponsor the school. Call (904) 622-5234.

Howard Academy Community Center, 306 NW Seventh Ave. Established in 1885 by the Board of Public Instruction as a graded school for Negroes, Howard Academy now serves as a neighborhood center.

Mount Zion A.M.E. Church, 623 S Magnolia Ave. The present church, the only surviving brick 19th century religious structure in Ocala, stands behind the site of the original white frame building. Construction of this first brick church owned by a black congregation began in 1891.

Citrus County

23. Dunnellon

Second Bethel Baptist Church, Annie Johnson Center, east of U.S. 41, south of Dunnellon. Now a Human Resource Center, this building was completed in 1888 and served as a school for the black community. The pastor, Rev. Henry Shaw, was the first to minister to black turpentine, sawmill and phosphate workers in the area.

Volusia County

24. Deland

Bradley Hall _ Safe Home Orphanage, 511 S Clara Ave. (Private residence.) This building, constructed c. 1925, was an orphanage for black children.

Old DeLand Colored Hospital, Stone Street. Constructed in 1926, this building is significant in the development of medical services for African American residents of Volusia County. When contrasted with the Old DeLand Memorial Hospital for whites, the plain and unadorned building is an architectural statement of the dissimilarity in segregated public facilities during the 1920s.

J. W. Wright Building, 258-264 W Voorhis Ave., in the Yemassee settlement. Constructed in 1920, the building was designed by architect Francis Miller, who was active in the Florida land boom of the 1920s.

Yemassee Settlement, centering around Voorhis, Euclid, Adelle and Clara Avenues. Yemassee began to develop as an exclusive black settlement in the Progressive Era. The area contains some of the oldest buildings associated with black residential neighborhoods in DeLand. Embodying Late Gothic Revival styling, the Greater Union Baptist Church was constructed at 240 S Clara Ave. in 1893.

Volusia County

25. New Smyrna Beach

Bethune-Volusia Beach, U.S. A1A, 6 miles south of New Smyrna Beach. Educator Mary McLeod Bethune, insurance executive G. D. Rogers of Tampa, rancher Lawrence Silas of Kissimmee and other black investors purchased this oceanfront property in the 1940s to develop a black residential resort community and recreation area.

Old Sacred Heart/St. Rita (Colored) Mission Church, 312 N Duss St. Constructed in 1899, this building was a house of worship for a community of black Roman Catholics. One of few places in the area where the Catholic Church played an active part in black community life, it is the only building still standing that represents such activism.

Citrus County

26. Floral City

Frasier Cemetery, Great Oaks Drive and East Tower Trail. This African-American cemetery was established by H. C. Frasier in 1908 when he used the land for the burial of his son. Arthur Norton, one of the first black settlers in the town, is buried here. He moved to the area around 1900 to work in the phosphate mines and lived to be 108. The earliest graves in the cemetery date back to the early 1900s.

Pleasant Hill Baptist Church, 8200 E Magnolia St. Built between 1895 and 1910, this wood frame Folk Style church is the oldest religious building for African-Americans in Floral City.

Sumter County

27. Bushnell

Dade Battlefield State Historic Site, off State Road 476, W U.S. 301. Louis Pacheco (Fatio), a Negro slave and interpreter for Maj. Francis L. Dade, was one of only four survivors of the Dade Massacre. Open 9 a.m.-5 p.m., Thurs.-Mon.

Seminole County

28. Sanford

Hopper Academy, 1111 S Pine Ave. This two-story "T"-shaped building was built circa 1900-10 and served as Sanford High School (Colored). It was one of the few early black high schools in Florida.

John M. Hurston House, 621 E Sixth St. (Private residence.) The Rev. John Hurston was the father of noted author/anthropologist Zora Neale Hurston as well as a forceful preacher and effective pastor.

St. James A.M.E. Church, 819 Cypress Ave. Organized in 1867, the church purchased the land at E Ninth Street and S Cypress Avenue in 1880. The building is an excellent example of the work of black architect Prince W. Spears.

Orange County

29. Eatonville

Eatonville, off U.S. 17-92, north of Orlando, between Winter Park and Maitland. The hometown of Zora Neale Hurston, Eatonville is the country's oldest black municipality, incorporated in 1887. A commemorative marker is in the Zora Neale Hurston Memorial Park, 11 People St. in the Eatonville Municipal Complex. Eatonville hosts the annual "ZORA!" festival.

Orange County

30. Orlando

Callahan Neighborhood, bounded by Colonial Drie, Central Avenue, Division Street and Orange Blossom Trail. This neighborhood, started in 1886, is one of the oldest black communities in Orlando.

J. A. Colyer Building, 27-29 Church St. Built in 1911, this building housed an early black business, the Colyer and Williams tailor shop.

Dr. I. S. Hankins House, 219 Lime St. (Private residence.) Home of Orlando's pioneer black physician, who campaigned for black home ownership.

Old Ebenezer Church, 596 W Church St. This Gothic Revival church was built circa 1900 by the congregation of the Ebenezer United Methodist Church.

Old Mount Pleasant Baptist Church, 701 W South St. This Romanesque style building was constructed in 1920.

The Riley Building, 571-75 W Church St. Constructed in 1947 by businessman Zellie L. Riley, who championed black business opportunity through the Negro Chamber of Commerce.

Osceola County

31. Kissimmee

Bethel A.M.E. Church, 1702 N Brack St. The name of Lawrence Silas, a prosperous black cattleman in Florida's range country, appears on the cornerstone. Zora Neale Hurston wrote of Silas' exploits, character and skill.

Brevard County

32. Cocoa

Harry T. Moore Center, 307 Avocado Ave. The building is the site of the first black school in Cocoa and is the only original black high school standing in Brevard County. It is now a child care facility and community center.

Malissa Moore Home, 215 Stone St. (private residence.) This home was built beside the Indian River in 1890 and later moved to its current location where it became a restaurant and then a boarding house. Mrs. Moore helped establish the Mt. Moriah A.M.E. Church, raising funds through Saturday night socials and donations of 50 or 75 cents.

Mt. Moriah A.M.E. Church, 304 Stone St. The original church building was destroyed by fire in 1922. The present Gothic revival-style building was built in 1923.

Richard E. Stone Historic District, 121-304 Stone St. The district is named for Richard E. Stone, who invented and patented a directional signal light for automobiles in 1935.

Polk County

33. Bartow

Brown Home, 470 S Second Ave. (Private residence.) Oldest black residence in Bartow.

34. Haines City

Bethune Neighborhood Center, Eighth Street and Avenue E. Previously known as Oakland High School, this five-building complex was a school for black children from Haines City, Loughman, Davenport, Lake Hamilton, Dundee and the unincorporated areas of Northeast Polk County.

Hillsborough County

35. Tampa

La Union Marti-Maceo, 1226 E Seventh Ave. Since its founding in 1904, the Marti-Maceo Mutual Aid Society has provided social and self-help activities for the black Cubans in Ybor City, who confronted both racial and nativist discrimination. Although black and white cigarmakers were initially part of the same mutual aid society, Florida laws against integrated social clubs required them to split in 1900.

Museum of African American Art, 1308 Marion St. The Barnett/Aden Collection is America's foremost collection of African American art and the oldest collection of African American art in the U.S., with one piece dating from 1851. Open 10 a.m.-4:30 p.m. Tues.-Sat.; 1-4:30 p.m. Sun. (except holidays).

St. Paul A.M.E. Church, 506 E Harrison St. Constructed between 1906 and 1917, the church has played an important role in the social, political and cultural events of the community. During the 1950s and 1960s, black leaders of the civil rights movement met at the church to organize their Freedom Marches and "sit-ins" to protest segregated restaurant facilities in downtown Tampa.

St. Peter Claver School, 1401 Governor St. St. Peter Claver is the oldest black school, public or private, still functioning in Hillsborough County. Opened on Feb. 2, 1894, it was destroyed by arson 10 days later. Rebuilt and reopened, it was turning out black graduates capable of becoming certified teachers within seven years. In 1916, Gov. Park Trammell issued a warrant for the arrest of three sisters at another black school, accusing them, as whites teaching black students, of violating an 1895 Florida law. Since St. Peter Claver School could be accused of violating the same law, a decision was made to close the school. The law was later declared unconstitutional, and the school reopened.

St. Lucie County

36. Fort Pierce

Zora Neale Hurston House, 1734 School Court St. (Private residence.) Hurston moved to Fort Pierce in 1957 and was the first tenant to live in this house on the city's north side. Hurston lived here while working as a reporter and columnist for the Fort Pierce Chronicle and while writing her manuscript on Herod the Great.

Pinellas County

37. Clearwater

Dorothy Thompson African American Museum, 1501 Madison Ave N. The museum houses a collection of more than 5,000 books by African American authors, more than 3,000 records and tapes, and art, newspaper clippings and artifacts from the first 75 families of African descent who settled in Clearwater. Call (813) 447-1037 for appointment.

38. St. Petersburg.

Historical sites in St. Petersburg were not included in information on the state's historical black trail. However, Bethel African Methodist Episcopal Church will likely be added when the trail is updated. The church was established in April 21, 1884, under the leadership of the Rev. J.S. Braswell. This church has been at the forefront of religious, cultural and political movements in St. Petersburg's African American community. Its members will observe the church's 100th anniversary with a year of activities.

Brevard County

39. Melbourne

Wright Brothers House, 2310{ Lipscomb St. (Private residence.) Wright Brothers was among the first settlers of Melbourne, establishing his homestead in the area by 1877.

Manatee County

40. Bradenton

Manatee Family Heritage House, 1707 15th St. E. A resource for the study of African American achievements, this collection of books, newspaper clippings, magazines, photographs and audio cassettes represents more than 50 years in the cultural and economic life of African-Americans. Open 2 p.m.-7 p.m. Tues., Wed. and Thurs.

Highlands County

41. Avon Park

Mt. Olive A.M.E. Church, 900 S Delaney Ave. The congregation was organized by Rev. A. M. Wadell in 1920.

Sarasota County

42. Sarasota

Booker Schools, historical marker, Orange Avenue at 35th Street. Named for black educator Emma E. Booker, who began teaching black children in 1910 and become principal of Sarasota Grammar School in 1918. She attended college during summers for two decades in order to earn her bachelor's degree.

First Black Community, historical marker, Central Avenue between Fifth and Sixth streets. Lewis Colson, the first black settler, helped survey Sarasota in 1886 and began what would become a prosperous black residential and business district.

Charlotte County

43. Cleveland

Cleveland Steam Marine Ways, 5400 Riverside Drive. George Brown, a black carpenter, came to the Peace River area in 1890 to work for a phosphate mining company. In 1897 he purchased a small Punta Gorda boat repair business that he later moved to Cleveland. Specializing in building luxury yachts, the Cleveland Steam Marine Ways was able to launch and haul the largest boats in Southwest Florida. Brown was an "equal opportunity employer" who hired whites and blacks, paying equal wages for equal skills. Today, the machine shop is the recreation hall for a mobile home park.

Brown House, 27430 Cleveland Ave. (Private residence.) The home of boatbuilder George Brown and his wife Tommie. Brown originally built a large, two-story house for his family. However, he heard some grumbling about the town's only black having the largest home. Not wishing to jeopardize his community relations, Brown sold the house to a white family and built a smaller residence for himself.

Charlotte County

44. Punta Gorda

Baker Elementary School, 311 E Charlotte Ave. The school was named for the first principal-teacher of the county's first "colored school," Benjamin Joshua Baker.

Palm Beach County

45. West Palm Beach

Gwen Cherry House, Sixth Street and Division Avenue. The home of Gwen Cherry, the first black woman elected to the Florida Legislature. The residence is being renovated as a museum for the Black Historical Preservation Society of Palm Beach County.

The Mickens House, 801 Fourth St. (Private residence.) The house was built in 1917 by Halen Mickens, who operated a wicker carriage concession. His widow, Alice Frederick Mickens, rose to national prominence in promoting higher education for blacks. She was chosen "Outstanding Woman of the Century" at the American Negro Emancipation Convention in 1963. She entertained such black notables as Dr. Ralph Bunche, Mary McLeod Bethune and A. Philip Randolph at the home.

Northwest Neighborhood Historic District, bounded by NW Second and 11th streets, N Rosemary and Douglas avenues. Most of the buildings were constructed by local black builders and contractors such as Simeon Mather, R. A. Smith, J. S. Woodside, Alfred Williams and Samuel O. Major. A few buildings, notably churches, were designed by local architects such as West Palm Beach's first black architect, Hazel Augustus, and the firm of Harvey and Clarke. The first blacks arrived in the area between 1885 and 1890, when the black residents of the area in Palm Beach known as the "Styx" were forced to move to the northwest section of the city. This district is the only remaining portion of the original black settlement.

Tabernacle Baptist Church, 801 Eighth St. This church was founded in 1893 as Mount Olive Baptist Church. The first public school for blacks in West Palm Beach was organized in 1894 and held classes in the church through 1896.

Lee County

46. Fort Myers

Paul Lawrence Dunbar School, 1857 High St. Completed in 1927, the Dunbar School served as the colored high school for the predominatly black Dunbar community and the surrounding area.

McCollum Hall, NE corner of Cranford and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Blvd. This entertainment spot for the black community also served as the USO for black World War II soldiers training at Page and Buckingham fields. Entertainers such as Duke Ellington and Count Basie appeared here.

Etta Powell Home, 2764 Lime St. (Private residence.) Since they were not allowed in area hotels, black major league baseball players used to stay in private residences when their teams were training at Terry Park. The Etta Powell Home was last used by baseball players in 1970.

Palm Beach

47. Delray Beach

B. F. James & Frances Jane Bright Mini-Park, east side of NW Fifth Avenue, 100 feet south of NW First Street. This site contains a bronze marker indicating five historic sites in one of the oldest sections of Delray Beach. These sites played a vital role in the early development of the town. They are: School No. 4 Delray Colored; Greater Mount Olive Missionary Baptist Church, 40 NW Fourth Ave.; St. Paul A.M.E. Church, 119 NWFifth Ave.; Free and Accepted Masons, Lodge 275, 85 NW Fifth Ave.; and St. Matthew Episcopal Church, 404 SW Third St.

Broward County

48. Fort Lauderdale

Old Dillard High School, 1001 NW Fourth St. One of the oldest buildings in the city, it was the first school for blacks in Fort Lauderdale. The building is used for education and houses a museum dedicated to Clarence C. Walker. As principal, Walker traveled throughout the county collecting signatures on petitions urging a full nine-month school term for Dillard High School. Until 1942, black schools were closed from November until March so the children could harvest area crops.

Dr. James F. Sistrunk Boulevard Historical Marker, 1400 block of Sistrunk Blvd., NW SixthSt. In recognition of distinguished civic and medical service to the citizens of Broward County, this street was dedicated to Dr. James F. Sistrunk, the first black medical doctor in the city and the only one for almost 16 years.

Lee County

49. Sanibel Island

Schoolhouse Gallery, 520 Tarpon Bay Road. This Baptist Church, built in 1909-1910, was established as the only school for the black children of the island in 1927, and was so used until 1963, when Sanibel Elementary, the first integrated school in Lee County, was built.

Dade County

50. Opa-locka

Opa-locka Thematic Development. Located northwest of Miami, largely black Opa-locka is unusual because of its widespread use of the Moorish revival architectural style. Today, 65 of the original 100 buildings remain.

Harry Hurt Building, 490 Ali-Baba Ave. One of the most prominent Moorish revival style buildings in Opa-locka, this 1926 building was constructed to serve as a shopping and service center.

Opa-locka City Hall, 777 Sharazad Blvd.

Opa-locka Railroad Station, 500 block of Ali-Baba Avenue.

51. Miami

Bill Baggs Cape Florida State Recreation Area, south Key Biscayne, off U.S. 1. At Cape Florida, many black Seminoles and escaped slaves sought passage to the Bahamas when Florida was transferred from Spain to the United States in 1821. Open 8 a.m.-sunset year-round.

Black Archives, History and Research Foundation of South Florida, Joseph Caleb Community Center, 5400 NW 22nd Ave., Suite 702. A repository of manuscripts and photographs that document the black experience in Dade County. Open 1-5 p.m. daily. Research hours by appointment. Call (305) 636-2390.

Chapman House, 1200 NW Sixth Ave. This Colonial style residence was built in 1923 by Dr. William A. Chapman Sr., the first known African-American hired by the State Board of Health as a consultant for disease control.

Greater Bethel A.M.E. Church, 245 NW Eighth St. Greater Bethel A.M.E. Church was organized in 1896.

Florida Memorial College, 15800 NW 42nd Ave. (LeJeune Road). In the late 1800s, the American Baptist Home Mission Society created two colleges in North Florida _ the Florida Baptist Institute for Negroes in Live Oak (1879) and the Florida Baptist Academy in Jacksonville (1892). The two institutions merged in 1941 and in 1968 moved from St. Augustine to the campus in Miami.

Lincoln Memorial Park, NW 46th Street and NW 30th Avenue. Lincoln Memorial, opened in 1924, was for decades the cemetery for blacks in Miami. Black pioneers buried here include Dana Albert Dorsey, Miami's first black millionaire, and Gwen Sawyer Cherry, the first black woman to serve in the Florida Legislature.

Lyric Theatre, 819 NW Second Ave. This masonry vaudeville and movie theater was built by prominent black entrepreneur Geder Walker in 1915. Once one of the major centers of entertainment for blacks, this building is the lone survivor of the district known as "Little Broadway," which flourished in Overtown during the 1930s-1940s.

Overtown Neighborhood, between NW Second and Third avenues and NW Eighth and 10th streets. Dating from 1896, Overtown is one of the oldest neighborhoods in Miami. Plans for the restored village include a regional cultural and entertainment tourist attraction highlighting the legacy of Miami's Overtown as well as black cultural heritage.

St. John's Baptist Church, 1328 NW Third Ave. The congregation was organized in 1906. The current building, designed by the black architectural firm of McKissack and McKissack, was completed in 1940.

The Vanguard _ Miami's Forerunners of Human Progress, Historical Museum of Southern Florida, 111 Flagler St. This mural of Miami's black personalities was commissioned by the Urban League of Greater Miami Inc. to commemorate the 25th anniversary of the passage of the 1965 Voting Rights Act. Open 10 a.m.-5 p.m. Mon.-Sat.; 10 a.m.-9 p.m. Thurs.; 12 noon-5 p.m. Sun.

Booker T. Washington High School, 1200 NW Sixth Ave. Construction began in 1926, amid protests of area residents. Until the school was completed, many men in the community took turns standing guard at night. Officially opened on March 28, 1927, this was the first school in South Florida to provide a 12th grade education for black children.

52. Coconut Grove

Black Heritage Museum, 3301 Coral Way, in the Miracle Center Mall. This museum has a permanent collection of more than 60 tribal artifacts from the West Coast of Africa and New Guinea, as well as a large collection of black Americana. Open 11 a.m.-4 p.m. Mon.-Fri.; 1-4 p.m. weekends/holidays. Call (305) 446-7304 or (305) 252-3535.

Charles Avenue Historic District, marker at Charles Avenue and Main Highway. The first black community on the South Florida mainland began here in the late 1880s when blacks, primarily from the Bahamas, came via Key West to work at the Peacock Inn, the first hotel in the Miami area.

Coconut Grove Cemetery, around 3650 Charles Ave. This cemetery was developed in 1913 by the Coconut Grove Colored Cemetery Association, which included several of the most prominent black citizens of Coconut Grove: E. W. F. Stirrup, Walker Burrows and Joseph Riddick.

Macedonia Baptist Church, 3315 Douglas Road. The congregation was organized in 1895 as the first Baptist church in Dade County for black people.

Stirrup House, 3242 Charles Ave. (Private residence.) Built in 1897 by Ebenezer W. F. Stirrup, a native of the Bahamas who came to the United States in 1888. Stirrup invested his earnings in land and built more than 100 homes to rent or sell to other Bahamian blacks who came to Coconut Grove around the turn of the century.

53. Coral Gables

MacFarlane Homestead Subdivision Historic District, bounded by Oak Avenue, Grand Avenue, Brooker Street and Jefferson Street. The residences were built primarily in the late 1920s and 1930s in a vernacular type of architecture not seen elsewhere in Coral Gables. The styles in the district include bungalows and one-story frame "shotgun" houses. St. Mary's Baptist Church at 136 Frow Ave. was built in 1927.

Monroe County

54. Marathon

Adderly House, 5550 Overseas Highway. (Private residence.) Located in the Crane Point Historic and Archaeological District, this Masonry Vernacular house was built circa 1906 by George Adderly, a black Bahamian immigrant who was a sponger, boatman and charcoal maker.

Pigeon Key Historic District, off U.S. 1 at mile marker 45. Seven frame vernacular structures built 1909-1920 as a railroad construction work camp for laborers on Henry Flagler's "overseas railroad." The camp includes a 1912 Negro Workers' Cottage, which housed blacks during the period. The site is being developed as a recreational facility.

55. Key West

Bahama Village, bounded by Whitehead, Louisa, Fort and Angela Streets. Bahama Village is the principal black residential area of Key West. Settlement of the neighborhood began in the 1870s by people of African descent who had arrived from the U.S. mainland, the Bahamas and the Caribbean. Many prominent African-Americans had homes in the area, including Robert Gabriel, Monroe County's representative in the State Legislature in 1879, and Mildred Shaver, principal of the Frederick Douglass School in the early 20th century.

Cornish Memorial A.M.E. Zion Church, 702 Whitehead St. It was built in 1903 and named in honor of Sandy Cornish, an early Bahamian immigrant who founded the congregation in 1865.

Nelson English Park, Thomas and Amelia Streets. This park is named for the African American civic leader who was the island's postmaster from 1882-1886.

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