Badgered by lawmakers, former Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan denied the nation's economic crisis was his fault on Thursday, but conceded the meltdown had revealed a flaw in a lifetime of economic thinking and left him in a "state of shocked disbelief."
Greenspan, who stepped down in 2006, called the banking and housing chaos a "once-in-a-century credit tsunami" that led to a breakdown in how the free market system functions. And he warned that things would get worse before they get better, with rising unemployment and no stabilization in housing prices for "many months."
The financial crisis even prompted the Republican Greenspan, a staunch believer in free markets, to propose that government consider tougher regulations, including requiring financial firms that package mortgages into securities to keep a portion as a check on quality. He said other regulatory changes should be considered, too, in such areas as fraud.
Greenspan's interrogation by the House Oversight Committee was a far cry from his 18-1/2 years as Fed chairman, when he presided over the longest economic boom in the country's history. He was viewed as a free-market icon on Wall Street and held in respect bordering on awe by most members of Congress.
Not now. At an often contentious four-hour hearing, Greenspan, former Treasury Secretary John Snow and Securities and Exchange Commission Chairman Christopher Cox were repeatedly accused by Democrats on the committee of pursuing an antiregulation agenda that set the stage for the biggest financial crisis in 70 years.
Greenspan, 82, acknowledged under questioning that he had made a mistake in believing that banks, operating in their own self-interest, would do what was necessary to protect their shareholders and institutions. Greenspan called that "a flaw in the model ... that defines how the world works."
He acknowledged that he had also been wrong in rejecting fears that the five-year housing boom was turning into an unsustainable speculative bubble that could harm the economy when it burst. Greenspan maintained during that period that home prices were unlikely to post a significant decline nationally because housing was a local market.
On the billions of dollars of losses suffered by financial institutions because of their investments in subprime mortgages, Greenspan said he had been shocked by the failure of banking officials to protect their shareholders from their bad decisions.
"A critical pillar to market competition and free markets did break down," Greenspan said. "I still do not fully understand why it happened."
SEC Chairman Cox told the House panel that "somewhere in this terrible mess, laws were broken." And Snow said that lawmakers should have responded more quickly to his pleas for stronger regulation for mortgage giants Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac, which were taken over by the government last month.
Job losses accelerate
Unemployment claims are rising faster than expected, leading economists to warn Thursday that the worst is yet to come. As the Labor Department released bleak new numbers, Goldman Sachs, Chrysler and Xerox all announced they were cutting workers by the thousands. New applications for unemployment insurance rose 15,000 last week to a seasonally adjusted 478,000, above analysts' estimates of 470,000. Jobless claims above 400,000 are considered a sign of recession. Currently, the unemployment rate is 6.1 percent. Economists predict it will rise to between 7 and 8.5 percent by early next year.
Borrowing record:Banks borrowed in record amounts from the Federal Reserve's emergency lending facility. The Fed's report, released Thursday, showed commercial banks averaged a record $105.8-billion in daily borrowing over the past week. That surpassed the old record, a daily average of $99.7-billion, from the prior week. For the week ending Wednesday, investment firms drew $111.3-billion, down from $131-billion the previous week.
Nervous, hopeful: Most Americans expect the economy to be better and the stock market to rise three months from now, according to an Associated Press-GfK poll released Thursday. But theydoubt unemployment will fall or home values will rise by then. Their expectations:
Economy: better in 3 months, 53 percent; better in a year, 75 percent.
Home values: higher in 3 months, 31 percent; higher in a year, 55 percent.
Personal finances: 66 percent expected things to be better in a year.
Stock market: higher in 3 months, 58 percent; higher in a year, 77 percent.