Welcome back to Florida Wonders, a series where Times journalists answer your questions. This week, John Cowart wanted to know: What did Floridians do to keep cool before home air conditioning became commonplace?
Floridians can thank Dr. John Gorrie. The Apalachicola physician created the technology that led to refrigeration and air conditioning.
Gorrie invented a system that blew air over ice to help refresh his patients who suffered from malaria and yellow fever, according to Times archives.
Despite being mocked for his innovative idea and called a fraud, Gorrie patented his “Machine for Artificial Production of Ice” in 1851. A statue honoring him as a notable Floridian would later be added to Statuary Hall at the U.S. Capitol. In 1902, Willis Carrier built on Gorrie’s technology and introduced the first electrical air conditioning unit.
Air conditioning started popping up in some public places, like theaters and hotels, in the 1920s. In the following decades, A/C would be added to restaurants, train cars, supermarkets and homes of the rich.
The Florida Theatre in St. Petersburg was kept so frigid that it almost ruined the grand opening in 1926.
“Underestimating the power of their new cooling plant, ‘the proud management had the temperature down so low that ladies in evening dresses almost froze!’” Ray Arsenault wrote in St. Petersburg and the Florida Dream.
Air conditioning wouldn’t creep into homes until the 1940s and 50s. Swampy Florida, currently home to over 21 million people, used to be the least populated Southern state. Many residents were snowbirds, fleeing as the mugginess of late spring set in and returning in December.
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Floridians who stuck it out during the hottest months simply formed their lives around the stifling temperatures, wearing shorts and sandals to work or even government meetings. They cooled themselves with paper fans and guzzled iced tea. They swam.
According to Gary Mormino’s book Land of Sunshine, State of Dreams, Floridians trapped cool morning air inside their homes with closed windows and depended on ceiling fans for relief. Evenings were for savoring breezes on the porch.
The heat even influenced architecture, he wrote. Florida Cracker style homes featured shiny metal roofs, tall ceilings that allowed warmth to rise, and wide windows and porches to welcome airflow.
As air conditioning appeared in some homes during the 1940s, the technology remained too expensive for many Floridians. According to Mormino, some were also against the idea of having it even to cool down schoolrooms. Old timers liked to say that sweating “bred character.”
“Many chose not to purchase window units because they simply enjoyed Florida as it was,” he wrote.
Air conditioning became more popular after World War II, ushering in a new era of tourism, wrote Tracy Revels in Sunshine Paradise. By the 1960s, units that were more efficient and affordable made air conditioning more common in homes.
The population exploded. So did the number of tourists. Florida saw a rise in roadside attractions and amusement parks.
“Of course, with more people, we needed more roads, more buildings, more sidewalks, more parking lots, more rooftops, more concrete, more asphalt — all reflecting, absorbing and releasing heat,” wrote Miami Herald columnist Bob Swift in 1990. “Thus, it’s hotter in South Florida than it used to be. Ergo, we need even more AC, itself a creator of outdoor heat.”
By the 1990s, Mormino wrote, air conditioning was a billion dollar industry — the “greatest single source of energy expended by Floridians.”
Editor’s note: Tracy Revels is the author of Sunshine Paradise. A previous version of this story misidentified the author.
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Information from Times archives was used in this story.