1714: The forces of King Philip V of Spain overcame Catalan defenders to end the 13-month-long Siege of Barcelona during the War of the Spanish Succession.
1789: Alexander Hamilton was appointed the first U.S. secretary of the Treasury.
1814: An American fleet scored a decisive victory over the British in the Battle of Lake Champlain in the War of 1812.
1857: The Mountain Meadows Massacre took place in present-day southern Utah as a 120-member Arkansas immigrant party was slaughtered by Mormon militiamen aided by Paiute Indians.
1936: Boulder Dam (now Hoover Dam) began operation as President Franklin D. Roosevelt pressed a key in Washington to signal the startup of the dam's first hydroelectric generator.
1941: Groundbreaking took place for the Pentagon.
1954: The Miss America pageant made its network TV debut on ABC; Miss California, Lee Meriwether, was crowned the winner.
1985: Pete Rose of the Cincinnati Reds cracked career hit number 4,192 off Eric Show of the San Diego Padres, eclipsing the record held by Ty Cobb.
1997: Scots voted to create their own Parliament after 290 years of union with England.
2001: Nearly 3,000 people were killed on an unprecedented day of terror as 19 members of al-Qaida hijacked four passenger jetliners, sending two of the planes smashing into New York's World Trade Center, one into the Pentagon and the fourth into a field in western Pennsylvania.