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Today in history, Sept. 12

1814: The Battle of North Point took place in Maryland during the War of 1812 as American forces slowed British troops advancing on Baltimore.

1914: During World War I, the First Battle of the Marne ended in an Allied victory against Germany.

1938: Adolf Hitler demanded the right of self-determination for the Sudeten Germans in Czechoslovakia.

1960: Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy addressed questions about his Roman Catholic faith, telling the Greater Houston Ministerial Association, "I do not speak for my church on public matters, and the church does not speak for me."

1974: Emperor Haile Selassie was deposed by Ethiopia's military after ruling for 58 years.

1977: South African black student leader Steve Biko died while in police custody, triggering an international outcry.

1995: The Belarusian military shot down a hydrogen balloon during an international race, killing its two American pilots, John Stuart-Jervis and Alan Fraenckel.

2000: Hillary Rodham Clinton became the first first lady to win an election as she claimed victory in the New York Democratic Senate primary.

Ten years ago: In a speech in his native Germany, Pope Benedict XVI said Islamic holy war was against God's nature and quoted a 14th-century Byzantine emperor, Manuel II Paleologos, as characterizing some teachings of Islam's founder as "evil and inhuman"; the pope's comments unleashed a torrent of rage across the Islamic world, prompting him to say he sincerely regretted that Muslims were offended.

Associated Press