1788: The Congress of the Confederation authorized the first national election, and declared New York City the temporary national capital.
1814: During the War of 1812, British naval forces began bombarding Fort McHenry in Baltimore but were driven back by American defenders in a battle that lasted until the following morning.
1911: The song Oh, You Beautiful Doll, a romantic rag by Nat D. Ayer and Seymour Brown, was first published by Jerome H. Remick & Co.
1923: Miguel Primo de Rivera, the captain general of Catalonia, seized power in Spain.
1948: Republican Margaret Chase Smith of Maine was elected to the U.S. Senate; she became the first woman to serve in both houses of Congress.
1962: Mississippi Gov. Ross Barnett rejected the U.S. Supreme Court's order for the University of Mississippi to admit James Meredith, a black student, declaring in a televised address, "We will not drink from the cup of genocide."
1971: A four-day inmates' rebellion at the Attica Correctional Facility in western New York ended as police and guards stormed the prison; the ordeal and final assault claimed the lives of 32 inmates and 11 hostages.